CHE - Define and Fill

Sole C
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CHE Plovdiv Exam
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Based on their function the plasma membrane proteins are classificated: A. B. C. D. E. A. Receptors B. Transport C. Connecting D. Enzymes E. Transductive
The type of cell junction (intercellular contacts) are: A. B. C. D. A. "Zipper" interlocking (interdigitations) B. Tight junction (zonula occludens) C. Desmosomes (Zonula adherens and macula adherens) D. Gap Junction
Electron microscopy shows that the nucleolus consists of following parts: A. B. A. Granular part B. Fibrous part
The main changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm during the prophase are: A. B. C. D. E. A. Disintegration of the nuclear envelope B.Disintegration of the nucleolus C. Chromosomes become condensed and visible (spirem figure) D. Formation of the mitotic spindle fibers
The general membrane cell organelles are: A. B. C. D. E. F. A.Endoplasmic Reticulum B.Golgi apparatus C. Mitochondria D.Lysosomes E.Peroxisomes F.Coated Vesicles
Electron microscopy reveals that the Golgi complex mainly of: A. B. C. A. Cisternae B.Microvesicles C.Vacuoles
The main components of the cytoskeleton are: A. B. A.Microtubules B.Microfilaments
The cell inclusions are: A. B. C. D. A. Glycogen granules B.Lipid droplets C.Pigments D.Crystals
The light microscopic changes in the aging cell are: A. B. C. A.Pyknosis B.Karyorexis C.Karyolysis
The types of exocrine secretion are: A. B. C. A.Merocrine B.Apocrine C.Holocrine
By light microscopic observation of section of spinal ganglion stained with AgNO3 (silver impregnation) a reticular network situated near the nucleus is visible. What is this organelle? Golgi Apparatus
Electron microscopy reveals a shallow bowl - like complex consisting of parallel arranged cisternae (flattened plates) with associated vesicles and vacuoles. What is this organelle? Golgi Complex
By electron microscopy, a pair of cylindrical structures localized at right angle to each other is observed. In transverse section, their wall is composed of nine sets of three peripherally placed micro-tubules. Centrioles (cyto-centre)
Under light microscope, in the cytoplasm of the cells stained with Sudan III - Hematoxylin colored in orange droplets surrounding blue nuclei are seen. What is the name of the described structures? Lipid inclusions
During the mitosis the chromosomes are localized in the opposite poles of the spindle fibers and form a specific figure. Which phase of mitosis is this and what is the name of the figure? Anaphase (diaster figure, double star)
The types of simple epithelia are: A. B. C. D. E. A. Simple squamous epithelium B.Simple cuboidal epithelium C.Simple columnar epithelium D.Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium E.Transitional Epi of Henle
The cellular types evident in the simple columnar resorbative epithelium are: A. B. C. A.Resorbtive cells B.Mucous (goblet) cells C.Substitutive cells (Germinative cells)
The cellular types evident in the transitional epithelium of Henle are: A. B. C. A.Basal cells B.Polyhedral cells C.Superficial cells (binucleate cells, "umbrealle0like" cells)
Write some of the most specific microscopic features of the stratified epithelia: A. B. C. A.Convoluted Basal membrane B.More than one cell layers C.Different in shape cells
Write the layers of the stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium: A. B. C. D. E. A.Stratum basale B.Stratum spinosum C.Stratum granulosum D.Stratum Lucidum E. Stratum corneum
The regeneration of the stratified epithelia is associated to the .............................. cells localized............................... The regeneration of the stratified epithelia is associated to the "Substitutive cells" cells localized "Upon the basal membrane"
Depending on type of secretion the glandular epithelia are: A. B. A.Exocrine Epithelium B.Endocrine Epithelium
Depending on the type of their secret the acini are: A. B. C. A.Serous Acini B.Mucous acini C.Mixed (compound) acini
Depending on shape of their secretory units the exocrine glands are: A. B. C. A.Acinous (alveolar) glands B. Tubular glands C.Tubulo-acinar
Write the types of the stratified squamous epithelium A. B. C. A. Stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium B.Stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium of cornea C.Stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium
By light microscope observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, epithelial membrane resting upon basal membrane (lamina) is observed. The cell nuclei lying at different levels in a perpendicular section. Some of the epithelial cells have cilia on their apical part. What type of epithelial tissue is this? Pseudo-stratified columnar ciliated epithelium.
By light microscope observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, epithelial membrane lying on straight basal membrane (lamina) is observed. The apical part of the cells is straited and their nuclei are ovoid, perpendicular orientated to the basal lamina. Some cells appear with unstained cytoplasm. What type of epithelial tissue is this? Simple columnar resorbtive epithelium of small intestine
By light microscope observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, epithelial membrane lying on convoluted basal membrane (lamina) is seen. The epithelial sheet is composed of different in shape cells - Columnar, Polygonal and Flattened arranged in layer. There is no border between the epithelial layers. The most superficial cells appear with preserved nuclei. The deeper epithelial layers show basophilia of cell cytoplasm. What type of epithelial tissue is this? Stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium
By light microscope observation of paraffin section stained with hemtoxylin-eosin, acini composed of high columnar cells with basal basophilia cytoplasm and apical secretory granules are found. The cell nuclei are large localised in the basal portion of the cytoplasm. The acinus lumen appears very small, narrow. What type of acini are these? Serous acinus
By lightmicroscope observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, acini composed of cells with unstained cytoplasm and flattened nuclei localized in its basal part are visible. The acinus lumen appears large, wide. What type acini are these? Mucous acinus
Based on the specific features of their inter-cellular substance there are the following main types of connective tissue: A. B. C. A.with undifferentiated intercellular substance B.with fibrous intercellular substance C. with rigid intercellular substance
In functional aspect the connective tissue cells are three main types: A. B. C. A.Productive B. Protective C. Trophic
The certain features of the amorphous (ground) intercellular substance are: A. B. C. A.Hydrophilia B.Metachromasia C.Optical homogenity
The connective tissue cells with protective function are: A. B. C. A. Macrophage B. Plasmocyte C.Mast cell
The macrophages arise from ......................... and have .................... function. The macrophages arise from "monocytes" and have "Protective" function.
The granules of mast cells contain: A. B. C. A.Heparin B.Histamine C.Serotonin
The specific staining methods for visualization of the elastic fibers are: A. B. A.Orcein B.by Van Gieson
Depending on the number and localization of the lipid droplets in their cytoplasm, the fat cells (adipocytes) are: A. B. A.Unilocular B.Multilocular
The osteone is ......................... and consists of ............................. The osteone is "the main structural unit of the bones" and consists of "bone lamella with its osteocytes and osteoclasts.
There are three types of cartilage: A. B. C. A.Hyaline Cartilage B.Elastic Cartilage C.Fibrocartilage
Link the fibers and the corresponding staining: A.Collagenous fibers B.Elastic fibers C.Reticular fibers 1.Orecin 2.Silver impregnation 3.Eosin A.Collagenous fibers - 3.Eosin B.Elastic fibers - 1.Orecin C.Reticular fibers - 2.Silver impregnation
Link the connective tissue cells and the corresponding features: A.Plasma cells B.Macrophages C.Mast Cell 1.Presence of numerous lysosomes 2.Eccentric nucleus with hetrochromatin having a "cartwheel" appearance 3.Granules with histamine, serotonin and heparin-like substance A.Plasma cells - 2.Eccentric nucleus with hetrochromatin having a "cartwheel" appearance B.Macrophages - 1.Presence of numerous lysosomes C.Mast Cell - 3.Granules with histamine, serotonin and heparin-like substance
By light microscopic observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, a cartilage with metachromatic stained intercellular substance and isogenous groups of 3-5 cells localized in lacunae is found. What type of cartilage is this? Hyaline Cartilage
Electron microscopic observation reveals multinucleated bone cell with numerous lysosomes and microvilli on the surface. What is the name of the described cell? Osteoclast
By light microscopic observation of paraffin section stained with methylete blue, cells with numerous metachromatic granules in their cytoplasm are found. What is the name of the described cells? Mast cell
The stages of the granulocyte development are: A. B. C. D. A.Myeloblast B.Promyelocyte C.Myelocyte D.Metamyelocyte
The plasma proteins are: A. B. C. A.Globulins B.Albumins C.Fibrinogen
The number of the erythrocytes is: A.By male - B.By female - A. 4.1 - 6.0 10(12)/L B.3.8 - 5.5 10(12)/L
The cell diameter by the different types of granulocytes is: A.Neutrophil - B.Eosinephil - C.Basophil - D.Medium-sized lymphcytes - E.Monocytes - A.Neutrophil - 10-12 Micrometers B.Eosinephil - 12-17 Micrometers C.Basophil - 10-12 Micrometers D.Medium-sized lymphcytes - 6-8 MM E.Monocytes - 13-20 MM
The period of the embryonic hemopoiesis are: A. B. C. A. Yolk sack -placenta hemopoiesis B. Liver-spleen hemopoiesis C. Bone marrow (medullary) hemopoiesis
The two main structural regions of the blood platelets are: A. B. A.Granulomere B.Hyalomere
On peripheral blood smear (Giesma staining), a spherical-shaped cell (diameter about 12MM) with highly polymorphous nucleus (consisting of 3 to 5 lobes) and filled with fine granules cytoplasm is found. What is the name of the cell? Neutrophil granulocyte
By differential blood count the present correlation into leucocytes is found: Neu - 55% Ba - 1% Eo - 4% Mo - 15% Ly - 25% Is this correlation normal or if it is not what is the name of the aberration? Monocytosis
By differential blood count the present correlation into leucocytes is found: Neu - 55% Ba - 1% Eo - 12% Mo - 4% Ly - 28% Is this correlation normal or if it is not what is the name of the aberration? Eosinophilia
Link the corresponding features to the blood cells: A.Monocytes B.Lymphocytes C.Blood platelets 1.Lack of nucleus 2.Kidney shaped nucleus 3.Eccentric placed nucleus with heterochromatin arranged in "cartwheel" fashion 4.Scanty basophilic cytoplasm 5.Pale, grayish-blue stained cytoplasm 6.Cell diameter about 3-4MM A.Monocytes: 2.Kidney shaped nucleus, 5.Pale, grayish-blue stained cytoplasm B.Lymphocytes; 3.Eccentric placed nucleus with heterochromatin arranged in "cartwheel" fashion, 4.Scanty basophilic cytoplasm C.Blood platelets; 1.Lack of nucleus, 6.Cell diameter about 3-4MM
The triad of the striated myofibril consists of: A. B. A.Tsystem B.2L System
What is the embryonic origin of: A.Smooth muscle tissue - B.Skeletal striated muscle tissue - C.Cardiac striated muscle tissue - D.Myoepithelial cells - A.Smooth muscle tissue - Mesenchyme B.Skeletal striated muscle tissue - Mesoblast C.Cardiac striated muscle tissue - Mesoblast D.Myoepithelial cells - Skin Ectoblast
The following proteins are present in the striated myofibrils: A. B. C. D. A.Actin B.Myosin C.Tropomyosin D.Troponin
The following types of the muscle tissue are innervated by the vegetative nervous system: A. B. A.Smooth B.Cardiac
For the smooth muscle tissue the ..... type of microscopic organization is specific and the nuclei are localized in the .... part of the cells. For the smooth muscle tissue the "Cellular" type of microscopic organization is specific and the nuclei are localized in the "Central" part of the cells.
The main contractile unit of the striated myofibrils is .............. which is localized between ................. lines. The main contractile unit of the striated myofibrils is "Sarcomere" which is localized between "two Z" lines.
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), bundles of striated cylindrical structures with numerous peripherally placed nuclei are visible. What type of muscle tissue is this? Striated skeletal muscle tissue
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), long cells with centrally placed spherical nuclei, divided in two or more branches at its ends appear. Between the adjacent cells, a dark lines pass in an irregular, step-like manner. What type of muscle tissue is this? Striated cardiac muscle tissue
Associate each type of muscle tissue with its corresponding features: A.Smooth muscle tissue B.Cardiac striated muscle tissue C.Skeletal striated muscle tissue 1.Presence of striated myofibrils 2.Presence of smooth myofibrils 3.Presence of cardiac myofibrils 4.Cellular type of microscopic organization 5.Symplast type of microscopic organization 6.Syncytial type of microscopic organization A.Smooth muscle tissue; 2.Presence of smooth myofibrils, 4.Cellular type of microscopic organization B.Cardiac striated muscle tissue; 3.Presence of cardiac myofibrils, 6.Syncytial type of microscopic organization C.Skeletal striated muscle tissue; 1.Presence of striated myofibrils, 5.Symplast type of microscopic organization
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), elongated (spindle-shaped) cells with centrally placed nuclei, arranged in layers are observed. What type of muscle tissue is this? Smooth muscle tissue.
The parts of the neuron are: A. B. C. A.Perikaryon (body) B.Axon C.Dendrites
Depending on the shape of their bodies (perikaryons) the neurons are: A. B. C. D. A.Star-shaped (mutipolar) B.Pyramidal C.Pear-like D.Spherical or spindle-shaped
Depending on their of their branches the neurons are: A. B. C. D. A.Unipolar B.Pseudounipolar C.Bipolar D.Multipolar
Depending on their function the neurons are: A. B. C. D. A.Motor (efferent) neurons B.Sensory (afferent) neurons C.Associative neurons D.Neuroendocrine cells
The central type of neuroglial cells are: A. B. C. D. A.Astrocytes B.Oligodendrocytes C.Ependyma D.Microglia
By light microscopic observation of spinal cord on transverse sections stained with toluidinblue, mutipolar neurons with cytoplasm filled with blue granules in the anterior horns are observed. What is the name of these structures and the appearance of which organelle are they? Nissl substance (rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum)
Under electron microscope, a transverse section of cylindrical in shape structure with dark and light lines arranged in concentric manner is observed. Peripherally, a part of cytoplasm with mitochondria and nucleus is visible. What is the name of the described structure? Myelinated nerve fiber
Under light microscopic, on sections from cerebrum stained with AuCl2 star-shaped neurons with numerous long non-branching processes localized in the white matter are observed. Some of the processes attach to the blood vessels wall. What is the name of these cells and what is their function? Fibrous astrocytes
Under light microscope, on sections stained with OsO4 bundles of black coloured fiber-like structures appear. There are gaps in their outer sheath and it is seen to be an incomplete or interrupted cylinder. radial celfts or fissues, extending through the thickness of the sheath are also visible. What is the name of the described structures? Myelinated nerve fibers
The consecutive stages (phases) of the spermatogenesis are: A. B. C. D. A.Cell multiplication B.Cell growth C.Cell differentiation D.Cell maturation
The ovum is surrounded by: A. B. A.Zona pellucida B.Corona radiata
The main parts of the spermatozoon are: A. B. C. D. A.Head B.Neck C.Middle piece D.Tail
The consecutive stages (phases) of the oogenesis are: A. B. C. D. A.Cell multiplication B.Cell growth C.Cell differentiation
Zona pellucida consists of: A. B. C. A.Mucoprotein substance B.Microvilli of the oocyte and the processes of the follicular cells C.Contacts between the oocyte and the follicular cells
The types of male germ cells are: A. B. C. D. E. A.Spermatogonia B.Primary spermatocytes C.Secondary spermatocytes D.Spermatids E.Spermatozoa
Under electron microscope, a round cell with spherical, pale nucleus and prominent nucleolus is observed. In the cell cytoplasm mitochondria, elements of Golgi complex and vesicles are arranged in group and form a common structure localized near the nucleus. What is the name of the above described cell? Primary oocyte
By electron microscope observation of transverse section of spermatozoon flagellum, centrally placed micro-tubles surrounded by filamentous sheath and in spiral fashion arranged mitochondria appear. Which part of the spermatozoon flagellum is this? Middle piece
By light microscopic observation of stained with hematoxylin-eosin section of ovary, a round, big in size cell within a spherical structure appears. The cell is with pale nucleus and prominent nucleolus. Around the cell a homogenous, deeply staining membrane is visible. Outside of it radially arranged cuboidal to cylindrical in shape cells form a layer. What is the name of the above described cell? Oocyte
Link the parts of the spermatozoon and the corresponding structures: A.Head B.Neck (Cervix) C.Middle piece (pars intermedia) D.Tail (flagellum) 1.Acrosome 2.Mitochondria 3.Centrioles 4.Longitudinal filaments A.Head - 1.Acrosome B.Neck (Cervix) - 3.Centrioles C.Middle piece (pars intermedia) - 2.Mitochondria D.Tail (flagellum) - 4.Longitudinal filaments
The parts of the mesoblast are: A. B. C. A.Epimer B.Mesomer C.Hypomer
What are the structures that derive from the somites of the mesoblast: A. B. C. A.Dermatomes B.Sclerotomes C.Myotomes
The placental barrier after the third month consists of: A. B. C. A.Syncytial trophoblast B.Mesenchyme of the placental villa C.Epithelium of the placental capillaries.
The placental barrier before the third month consists of: A. B. C. D. A.Cytotrophoblast B.Syncytial trophoblast C.Mesenchyme of the placental villa D.Epithelium of the placental capillaries
Specific for the segmentation by the human embryo is: A. B. C. A.Totally B.Asynchronous C.Unequal
The formation of the chondra dorsalis passes through the following stages: A. B. C. A.Chordal channel B.Chordal plate C.Definitive Chorda
The umbilical cord of the newborn baby is built from: A. B. C. A.Two arteries and One vein B.Mucoid tissue C.Amnion
Chorion types: A. B. A.Chorion laeve B.Chorion frondosum
Trophoblast types are: A. B. A.Cytotrophoblast B.Syncytial trophoblast
The process of the formation of the nervous system passes through the following stages: A. B. C. A.Neural plate B.Neural groove C.Neural tube
Determine the localization of the structure according to its stage of development: A.Zygote B.Blastocysta (day 6-7) C.Blastocysta (day 9) a.Free in the uterus cavity b.In the oviduct c.In the endomethrium A.Zygote - b.In the oviduct B.Blastocysta (day 6-7) - a.Free in the uterus cavity C.Blastocysta (day 9) - c.In the endomethrium
Associate the parts of the mesoblast with the corresponding derivates: A.Epimer B.Mesomer C.Hypomer a.Dermatomes b.Splanchnopleura c.Sklerotomes d.Myotomes e.Nephrotomes f.Somatopleura A.Epimer - a.Dermatomes, c.Sklerotomes, d.Myotomes B.Mesomer - e.Nephrotomes C.Hypomer - b.Splanchnopleura, f.Somatopleura
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), part of extraembryonal organ that consists of amnion, smooth chorion (chorion laeve) and covering decidua (decidua capsularis) appears. What is this organ? Fetal Sack
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining) part of extraembryonal organ consisting of different in shape and size structures that are covered by syncytiotrophoblast, filled with mesenchyme and blood vessels appears. What is this organ? Placental villae (placenta)
Under the light microscope - H-E staining part of extraembryonal organ that is covered by amnion and contains three blood vessels and mucoid tissue between them appears. What is this organ? Umbilical cord (after the III-rd month)
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