C1 - Carbon Chemistry Flash Cards

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Flashcards on C1 - Carbon Chemistry Flash Cards, created by aneeqaahmed on 04/14/2015.

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Chemistry: Carbon Chemistry C1 Flash Cards By Aneeqa Ahmed
Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels are finite resources because they are no longer being made or are being made extremely slowly. - They are being used up faster than they are formed. (Non-renewable Resources) Crude Oil: All extractable resources will be used up, need alternatives.
Fractional Distillation 1 Crude Oil is a mixture if many types of oil, which are all 'Hydrocarbons'. A Hydrocarbon is made up of molecules containing carbon and hydrogen only.
Fractional Distillation 2 Crude Oil is heated at the bottom of a fractioning column. Oil which doesn't boil sinks to bottom as thick liquid, (BITUMEN) - It has a high boiling point and exits at the bottom of the column.
Fractional Distillation 3 Other fractions, containing mixtures of of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points boil and gases rise up in the column. This column is cooler at the top and fractions with lower boiling points exit towards the top of the column.
Fractional Distillation 4 Crude Oil can be separated because the hydrocarbons in different fractions have different sized molecules. Forces between the molecules are intermolecular and break during boiling.
Fractional Distillation 5 Molecules of a liquid separate from each other as molecule gas. Large molecules (bitumen) have strong forces of attraction, need lot of energy to break these bonds, they have higher boiling points.
Fractional Distillation 6 Smaller molecules such as petrol have weak attractive forces between them and separated easily. less energy is needed to break the forces between the molecules. These fractions have low boiling points.
Fractional Distillation 7 In fractional distillation, the intermolecular forces between the molecules are broken during boiling. The covalent bonds within the molecules do not break.
Problems in extracting Crude Oil 1 Transporting oil can cause problems, oil slicks damage birds feathers and cause their deaths. Clean-Up operations use detergents that can damage the surrounding wildlife.
Problems in extracting Crude Oil 2 There may be political problems related to extraction, particularly when the UK is dependant on oil and gas from politically unstable. Oil producing nations can set high prices and cause problems for future non oil producing nations.
Problems in extracting Crude Oil 3 The demand for oil and its products are very high, there is a conflict between the needs for making petrochemicals and for making fuels. A fraction called Naphtha is in high demand for use in medicines, plastics and dyes.
Cracking Cracking is a process which turns large alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecules. An alkene molecule has a double bond, useful to make polymers. Cracking also helps oil manufactures match supply with demand for products, (Petrol).
Choosing Fuels You need to look at key aspects like: Energy Values, Availability, Storage, Cost, Toxicity, Pollution Caused and Ease of Use.
Combustion 1 Burning hydrocarbons fuels in plenty of air produces carbon dioxide and water. Methane + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water.
Complete Combustion This occurs when a fuel burns in plenty of oxygen, more energy is released during complete combustion than incomplete combustion.
Incomplete Combustion Toxic Gas (Carbon Monoxide) and soot (Carbon) is made during Incomplete Combustion. Word Equations: Fuel + Oxygen -> Carbon Monoxide (Carbon) + Water
Molecular Formula of Complete Combustion and Incomplete Combustion. Complete - CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 +2H2O Incomplete - 2CH3 + 3O2 -> 2CO + 4H2O or CH4 + O2 -> C + 2H2O
Complete Combustion and Incomplete Combustion. Complete Combustions gives carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete Combustion gives carbon monoxide and water or carbon and water.
Clean Air Clean Air is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and of the remaining 1% only 0.035% is Carbon Dioxide.
Factors resulting in Carbon Dioxide in the air increasing. Deforestation - A more rainforests are cut down, less photosynthesis takes place. Increased Population - As this increases, the world's energy requirements increase.
The Atmosphere 1 Gases from the interior of the earth form the original atmosphere, plants that can photosynthesise remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and add oxygen.
The Atmosphere 2 Gases come from the centre of the earth through volcanoes in a process called degassing. Scientists analyse the composition of these gases to form theories about the original atmosphere.
The Atmosphere - Theories 1 theory is that the atmosphere was originally rich in water vapour and carbon dioxide. This vapour condensed to form oceans and carbon dioxide dissolved in the waters. The percentage of nitrogen increased, being unreactive and little nitrogen was removed.
The Atmosphere - Theories 2 Overtime, organisms that could photosynthesise evolved and converted carbon dioxide and water into oxygen. reason being why the percentage of oxygen has increased and the percentage of carbon dioxide decreased.
Pollution Control It is important to control atmospheric pollution. Sulphur Dioxide is a pollutant that can cause difficulties with people who have asthma. It can dissolve in water to form acid rain which damages the wildlife and limestone buildings.
Catalytic Converters - (In cars which changes carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide.) In a catalytic converter a reaction between nitric oxide and carbon monoxide takes place on the surface of a catalyst. 2 gases formed are natural components of air - nitrogen and carbon dioxide. 2CO + 2NO -> N2 2CO2
Hydrocarbons It is a compound of hydrogen and carbon atoms only. - Alkanes are hydrocarbons which have single covalent bonds only. - Alkenes are hydrocarbons which have double covalent bonds between carbon atoms. (2 shared pairs of electrons)
Propane and Propanol Propane, C3H8 is a hydrocarbon, because it has only C and H atoms. It is an Alkane because all bonds are single covalent bonds. Propanol, C3H7OH is not a hydrocarbon because it contains an oxygen atom.
Propene C3H6, is a hydrocarbon because it contains only C and H atoms. It is an Alkene because it has a double covalent bond between carbon atoms. Propene is also a monomer. Poly(propene) is the polymer.
Bromine This is used to test for alkene, when orange bromine water is added to an alkene it turns colourless. (decolourises). The bromine and alkene form a new compound by an addition reaction. A di-bromo compound forms which is colourless.
A Saturated Compound A saturated compound only has a single covalent bonds between carbon atoms. Alkanes, like propane are saturated. They have no double bond between carbon atoms.
An Unsaturated Compound. This has at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. Alkenes, like propane are unsaturated. They have a C=C double bond.
Polymerisation 1 Addition polymerisation is the process in which many alkene monomers react to give a polymer. This reaction needs high pressure and a catalyst.
Displayed formula for Polymerisation You can recognise this from its displayed formula, as there is a long chain, the pattern is repeated after every 2 carbon atoms, 2 brackets on the end with extended bonds through them which is an 'n' after the brackets.
Polymerisation 2 An addition polymer can be constructed when the displayed formula of its monomer is given. A monomer can be constructed when the displayed formula of its addition polymer is given.
Addition Polymerisation During this a long chain is made until it is stopped. This long molecule is poly(ethene) the reaction causes a double bond in the monomer to break and each of the 2 carbon atoms forms a new bond. This involves the reaction of unsaturated monomer molecules (alkenes) to form a saturated polymer.
Nylon This is tough, lightweight, keeps water out and UV (ultraviolet) light out but doesn't let water vapour through. This means that sweat condenses and makes the wearer wet and cold inside their jacket.
Gore-tex Has all the properties of nylon but is breathable, its worn by active outdoor people. Water vapour from sweat can pass through the membrane but rain water cannot.
Gore-tex 2 The material is waterproof and yet breathale. It is made from a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethene)/polyureethane membrane. The holes is PTFE are too small for water to pass through but are bid enough for water vapour to pass through. Its too fragile on its own and is laminated onto nylon to produce a stronger fabric.
Disposing of Polymers Scientists are developing new types of polymers: Polymers which dissolve and biodegradable polymers.
Environmental and Economic issues with the use of existing polymers. Disposal of non-biodegradable polymers means landfills get filled quickly. This is wasting land which could be valuable for other purposes and by burning waste makes toxic gases. These both waste the crude oil used to make polymers, it is difficult to sort out different polymers so recycling is difficult.
Stretchy Polymers and rigid polymers Atoms in polymers are held together by strong covalent bonds Intermolecular forces are weak forces of attraction between molecules and aren't as strong as covalent bonds within molecules.
Stretchy polymers and rigid polymers - plastics (weak intermolecular forces) Plastics that have weak intermolecular forces between polymer molecules have low melting points and can be stretches easily as the polymer molecules can slide over each other.
Stretchy polymers and rigid polymers - plastics (Strong forces) Plastics that have strong forces between the polymer molecules, (covalent bonds or cross-linking bridges) have high melting points, can't be stretched and are rigid. If the forces between 2 polymer molecules are weak, plastic is easily stretched.
Proteins Protein molecules in eggs and meat permanently change shape when eggs or meat are cooked. This is 'Denaturing'. The texture of meat and egg changes when its cooked because the shapes of the protein molecules change permanently.
Carbohydrates Potato is a carbohydrate which is easier to digest if it is cooked because the starch grains swell up and spread out. The cell walls rupture resulting in the loss of their rigid structure and a softer texture is then produced.
Baking Powder Baking powder is sodium hydrogencarbonate. When heated it breaks down (decomposes) to give carbon dioxide.
Word and Balanced symbol equation for the decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate. Word equation: Sodium hydrogencarbonate -> sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water. Balanced Symbol Equation: 2NaHCO3 -> Na2CO3 + CO2 + H20
Emulsifiers 1 They are molecules that have a water loving (hydrophilic) part top end and an oil or fat loving point (hydrophobic) part which is the bottom end of the molecule.. The oil or fat loving point (hydrophobic) end goes into the fat droplets.
Emulsifiers 2 They help to keep oil and water from separating: The hydrophilic end bonds to the water molecules and the hydrophobic end bonds with the oil or fat molecules. The hydrophilic end is attracted to the water molecules which surround the oil keeping them together
Esters Alcohols react with acids to make and 'ester' and water. alcohol + acid -> ester + water Esters are used to make perfumes.
Ester's being made Esters can be made using a simple experiment. The acid is added to the alcohol and heated for some time, the condenser stops the gas from escaping and helps to cool it down again so it can react more, the condenser allows the reaction to go on for longer.
Perfume Properties It must have certain properties, for example it must evaporate easily, to reach the nose. be non-toxic to not poison anyone. not react with water so does not react with perspiration. not irritate the skin so perfume can be used on skin also should be insoluble so its not washed off.
Solutions A solution is a mixture of solvent and solute that does not separate out. Esters can be used as solvents.
Evaporation of Perfumes in terms of Kinetic Energy. In order to evaporate, particles of liquid need kinetic energy to overcome forces of attraction to other molecules in the liquid. Only weak attractions exist between particles of the liquid so its easy to overcome these attractions as they have sufficient kinetic energy.
Colloids Paint is a colloid, where the particles are mixed and dispersed with particles of a liquid (binding medium), but aren't dissolved. The components of a colloid wants separate because particles are scattered throughout the mixture and are small so they don't settle at the bottom.
Paint Drying Most paints dry because they are applied as a thin layer and the solvent evaporates. - Emulsion paints are water based paints that dry when the solvent evaporates. - Oil paints dry because the solvent evaporates, and the oil is oxidised by atmospheric oxygen.
Thermochromic Pigments Thermochromic pigments change colour at different temperatures. Thermochromic pigments are used as thermometers because they change colour with the temperature change, in kettles, babies spoons, bath toys colour changes when the temp is hot to prevent any dangers.
Thermochromic Pigments mixed with acrylic paints. This is added to make even more colour changes. If a blue thermochromic pigment which turns colourless when hot is added yellow acrylic paint, the paint will appear green when cool and yellow when hot.
Phosphorescent Pigments Phosphorescent pigments glow in the dark because they absorb and store energy and they release the energy as light over a period of time. They are so much safer than the older alternative radioactive paints.
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