Primary Health Care in Action

Flashcards by lschneider75, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by lschneider75 almost 6 years ago


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Question Answer
Primary Health Care Principles 6 principles Accessible health care Appropriate technology Health promotion Cultural sensitivity Intersectoral collaboration Community participation
Social Determinants of Health Age, sex and hereditary factors Individual lifestyle factors Living and working conditions Social and community networks General socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions
Primary Care Is the first line of care when a person is sick or injured. Primary care is an element of primary health care
The Social Gradient Those who earn income at successively higher level have better health than those who are unemployed or have lower levels of income
What is Wellness A state of harmony between the physical, emotional, social and spiritual health of the individual and their environment.
What is Empowerment Empowerment is a key construct in health promotion wherein people are enabled to feel in control of their lives.
What is Health A multilayered social and ecological phenomenon created in the context of community life
What is the Relationship between Social Determinants of Health & Primary Health Care SDH are the social factors that impact on health. PHC is a set of principles to guide health professional in helping create socially just, equitable conditions for good health.
Social Capital A sense of trust, civic engagement, participation and belonging.
Health Literacy The ability to make sound health decisions in everyday life.
Levels of Health Literacy Knowledge to choose - Functional Ability to Influence - Communicative Skills for action - Critical Capable of community action - Civic
When was the Declaration of Alma Ata created Goal - Health for all by year 1978 2000
Globalisation Integration of the world economy through the movement of goods and services, capital, technology and labour
What is a health city? A city where people have choices that can help them reach their maximum potential
Community Assessment 1. Map community strengths, resources, needs and risks. 2. Find out from community members what they identify as their strengths & needs 3. Create a snapshot of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats 4. Work with community to develop intervention strategies for improvement or measures that sustain positive community life.
What is the rate and how is it calculated A measure of the frequency of a disease or condition, calculated by dividing prevalence by the incidence multiplied by a population base number (1000 0r 100,000).
What is incidence? The number of new case of a disease or health issue in a specific period of time, divided by the population at risk multiplied by the base number.
What is prevalence? The total number (new plus existing) of cases of a disease or health issue in a population at any one time, divided by the population at risk multiplied by the base number.
Relative Risk A measure of the extent to which a group exposed to a risk has a higher rate
Dimensions of Health Physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental
Standard Domains For The RN Professional Practice Critical Thinking Provision and Coordination of Care Collaborative and Therapeutic Practice
National Health Priority Areas 1996 9 Priorities Cardiovascular Health Cancer Control Injury Prevention And Control Mental Health Diabetes Mellitus Asthma Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Conditions Obesity Dementia
The Millennium Development Goals 8 Goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce Child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDs, Malaria & other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development
Primary Prevention Action to reduce or eliminate disease or reduce the onset, causes, complications or recurrence of disease Upstream - Promoting, maintaining health (improving conditions)
Secondary Prevention Early Detection of health problems prevent complications when illness is present minimise negative health outcomes and aid recovery Midstream - Appropriate treatment protection from harm or disability after illness or injury
Tertiary Prevention Reduction of complications associated with acute or chronic illness aim is to achieve optimal wellness. Downstream - Rehabilitation, coping (managing health & illness)
Health Promotion The process of enabling people to increase control over, and improve their health - 1986 A process, a strategy and an approach & has emerged as a powerful public health philosophy - 2002-2005
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 1986 Shift in focus from disease prevention and individual responsibility for health to health promotion through building health public policy. Emphasis on creating a social, economic and political environment supportive of sustaining improvement in the health of populations
Ottawa Charter Emblem Building health public policy Creating environments which support health living Strengthening community action Developing personal skills Reorient health care system and health services
Three basic Health Promotion Strategies 1. Enable - individuals, communities and populations to enhance their own health 2. Mediate - need to mediate change and conflict between groups 3. Advocate - need to get the message out
Health Promotion into the 21st Century Jakarta 1997
Health Education Is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes
Health Communication Media campaigns Limited reach media - posters etc Mass reach media - television
Intersectoral Collaboration The cooperation or working together of all sectors who are involved in improving health
Community Participation The involvement of consumers, carers and communities in decision making about their own healthcare and healthcare services
In order to change our client's health behaviours nurses and midwives need to 1. Assess the clients learning needs 2. Assess the clients learning styles 3. Assess clients readiness to learn 4. All of the Above
The 4 most common learning styles are Visual Aural Read/Write Kinsestheic
Factors which influence a person's readiness to learn include Learning style, motivation to learn Emotional barriers, cultural & religion Physical and/or cognitive limitations Language barriers
Stages of Health Behaviour Change Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance
Factors Influencing Behaviour Change Predisposing Factors Enabling Factors Reinforcing Factors
Predisposing Factors Knowledge beliefs & attitudes based on life experience, age, race & socio economic
Enabling Factors Assist the client to make the change readiness to learn, learning styles, resources, time & money
Reinforcing Factors Presence or absence of support encouragement or discouragement access to health care
What is Community? At its most basic community means "that which is common"
Types of Community 1. Community of Place - Geographical - Global, urban, rural & Relational - Online communities 2. Communities of common interest or affiliation - share attitudes, activities, religious, cultural groups
Healthy Community Community health is characterised by the presence of strong social capital, engaged and empowered community members, a dynamic and healthy physical, social and spiritual environment, accessible, affordable and equitable services and resources, and a system of governance that is inclusive and responsive to community members in addressing the Social Determinants of Health
Population Health The organised response by society to protect and promote health, and so prevent illness, injury, disability and early morality. The programs, services and institutions of population health emphasise the prevention of disease and the health needs of the population as a whole.
Community Assessment Community assessment is a process systematically collecting and analysing information about a community, as well as an opportunity to build the capacity of community members, by involving them integrally in the process
3 Main Steps in Community Assessment 1. Gather relevant data about the community 2. Analyse the data 3. Identify community health problems and strengths
What is Epidemiology Is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related state or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health programs.
Mortality Rate The measure of deaths in a population, for a defined period of time
Morbidity The number of people (cases) in a certain population affected by a disease or condition.
Patient Education A series of planned teaching-learning activities designed for individuals, families or groups who have identified alteration in health
Health Educator Role To present a basis for informed choice by providing the options, choices and access to resources that will help individuals, communities, organisations and government choose health pathways to living
Top 10 Causes of death globally 2010 1. Ischemic heart disease 2. Stroke 3. Respiratory infection 4. COPD 5. Diarrhoeal diseases 6. AIDS/HIV 7. Lung Cancer 8. Diabetes mellitus 9. Road accidents 10. Prematurity
Diabetes A chronic condition - Type 1 & 2 Glucose - Insulin In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body Blood glucose levels
Cardiovascular disease CVD refers to all disease and conditions involving the heart and blood vessels
The main types of cardiovascular disease Coronary heart disease stroke heart failure and cardiomyopathy acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease peripheral vascular disease congenital heart disease
Obesity Overweight and obesity are not diseases. It contributes to the development of a number of diseases
Obesity Facts 3 in 5 Australian adults are overweight or obese 1 in 4 Australian children are overweight or obese
How is Obesity determined BMI = Weight divided by Height
What causes Diabetes and CVD Risk Factors - any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury.
Dementia Is not a single specific condition. Rather, it is an umbrella term that describes a syndrome associated with more than 100 different conditions which are characterised by the impairment of brain functions, including language, memory, perception, personality and cognitive skills. It is usually gradual onset, progressive in nature and irreversible.
Types of dementia Alzheimer's disease Vascular dementia Dementia with lewy bodies Fronto-temporal dementia
Risk Factors For Dementia High Blood Pressure High Blood Cholesterol Cardiovascular Disease Smoking Alcohol Intake Exposure to Environmental Toxins Lack of Physical Activity Head Injury Level of Education
Mental Health Not just the absence of mental disorder; it is a state of well-being in which every individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.
The national mental health strategy Promote the mental health of the Australian community Prevent the development of mental disorder Reduce the impact of mental disorders on individuals, families and the community Assure the rights of people with mental illness
Asthma Is a long term chronic condition Is characterised by recurrent attacks of breathlessness & wheezing, which vary in severity and frequency from person to person. Is a significant cause of ill health and poor quality of life Effects all age groups Often starts in childhood
Musculoskeletal conditions Are conditions of the bones, muscles and their attachments such as joints
Determinants of Asthma Age, sex, hereditary Aboriginality Individual lifestyle Living and working conditions Socio-structural/environmental
Triggers for an Asthma Attack Tobacco Smoke Dust Mites Outdoor Air Pollution Pets Mould Infections Physical Exercise
Prevention of Asthma Primary - Education, smoking cessation programs Secondary - Reduce or eliminate exposure to cigarette smoke Tertiary - Diet, Exercise, Medication Mgmt
What is Cancer? Cancer is a diverse group of diseases in which some of the body's cells become defective or abnormal, multiply out of control, form lumps (tumours)
Most common cancers prostate bowel breast melanoma of the skin lung
What is injury Physical harm to a person's body Common types of physical injury - broken bones, cuts, brain damage, poisoning & burns Harmful contact between people and objects Harmful acts by people
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