Classics Flashcards on Architecture, created by maireadharris on 05/15/2015.
Flashcards by maireadharris, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by maireadharris over 7 years ago

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Temple to Athena Nike – 420BC -Built in the Pellopenesian wars Athens wanted to win -Purely ionic temple -Amphiprostyle -Tetrastyle -Small temple -3 step stylobate -Entasis of the columns -Banded architrave (fasciae) -Continuous ionic frieze .Narrative .Low relief sculpture .Historical battles -Monolithic capitals -10 Nike acroterian -Ballistrade wall built in 410BC – sculpture of Nike -Naos, pronaos & opisthidomos -No interior columns -Wooden cult statue .Nike Apteros .Wingless .victory cannot leave -Pillars in antis -Situated on the bastion off the Propylaea -Sculpture .Apex & Gable end .Continuous ionic frieze -3 Solid walls.
1st Temple to Hera at Paestum - C.550BC •Located in Paestum, Italy •Doric order and built in limestone - 9x18 - Odd number at front - can’t see through a central door - 2 doors •3 step stylobate •Entasis and tapering of the non-fluted columns - Prototype to make the columns look straight but didn’t get it right. •Floral band below the echinus •Has a pronaos, naos and an adyton •Columns down the middle of naos •2 cult statues •Plan of this temple wasn’t very convenient for the uses •Doric order entablature •Unusual design for a temple - Unsuccessful •They thought function to be more important than aesthetics
Temple of Athena at Paestum C.500BC •Hexastyle - 6x13 - 1st example of standard doric order •3 step stylobate •8 ionic columns in antis - 1st temple known to mix orders •No opisthodomos or adyton - Asymmettrical •Temple was built on 3 levels •2 spiral staircases - could lead to roof •No columns inside the naos •Also has tapering and entasis Has a sandstone layers above and below the frieze •Standard doric entablature •The overhang of the eaves of the roof had coffering inside •Quite a small temple
The Parthenon - 447 - 437 BC •Purely droic exterior •Echinus is nearly flat •Perfect optical refinements - Mathematically calculated entasis - Every straight line is slightly curved upwards - Stylobate curves upwards - Columns incline slightly •Angle contractions used at the corners to align columns with triglyphs and to make the temple look more sturdy •Standard doric ratio - 8:17 •3 step stylobate - At entrances each step had an extra step •Sculpture in the pediment -In the round -West = Contest of Athena and Poseidon for Athens -East = Birth of Athena •Each of the 92 metopes of the doric entablature have high relief sculpture in them -Various mythological battle scenes -Showing Greek victory -Links to defeat of Persians -Persians destroyed original Acropolis •Continuous ionic frieze above the pronaos and opisthodomos and around naos walls with low relief scupture inside- Panathenaic festival -Arrogant of Athens to put mortals on a temple frieze •Has both an adyton and opisthodomos -Collosal adyton •4 columns in the adyton- structural support
More on the Parthenon •Chrystelephantine statue of Athena -Made by Pheidias •Row of columns behind the statue -Frames the cult statue -For aesthetic reasons •2 tier columns in the naos •6 columns in antis•Shallow pronaos and opisthodomosspace •Symmetrical •Coffered ceiling in the naos •Rebuilt by Perikles after the Persians destroyed the original buildings of the Acropolis •The Parthenon was built as a symbol of Athens’ power and wealth at the time it was built -Legacy of Athens’ power -Entablature frieze shows civilised (Greece) victories over the barbarians (Persians) •Small windows in the naos walls -Lights up the cult statue •Arrive at the west corner -Gives you a 3 dimensional perspective -Have to walk all the way round to the altar -Appreciate the whole temple •Regulae and Guttae above and below •Made out of solid pentellic marble
Propylaea - 437-432 BC •Built on uneven ground•Doric temple facades -Hexastyle •Bigger centre intercolumniation -Access reasons •2 lateral wings -Right wing -Sculpture gallery -Bastion -Athena Nike -Left wing -Pinakotheke -Picture gallery (Historical battles) -Mini doric facades -False symmetry •Challenges for Mnesikles: -Appear coherant -Providing adequate -Deal with uneven ground -Transition point •Ionic columns inside the main building -Thinner and taller •Surrounded by things that look like temples -Transition point •Solid pentellic marble•Never fully completed•Built by Mnesikles •5 access points •Coffered ceilings -Painted blue with gold stars
The Erechtheion - 421-405 BC •Purely ionic temple •Built to accomodate multiple religious sites -Athena’s olive tree -Tomb of Cecrops -snake pit -Statue of Athena Polias -Erectheus •Built on uneven ground •Built by Mnesikles •Perikles had already died •Not rectangular -Multiple dedications •East ionic facade -Hexastyle -Amphiprostyle •South porch -Caryatids -4x2 •West end -4 engaged ionic columns -Start alfway up the wall -Overlooks the olive tree •Continuous narrative frieze -Connects each building -Background of Ellusinian limestone w/ marble relief •Fully marble except the frieze •Egg and dart mouldings on the entablature
Temple of Apollo at Bassae - 425BC •Hexastyle •6:15 •Geographically remote •Unusual features: -Faces North -2 doors -Mixes 3 orders •Doric peristyle -Echinus nearly flat •Made out of Archadian limestone•Usual layout of rooms •Ionic engaged columns in the naos •1 free standing corithian column in the back of naos •Continuous ionic frieze above the interior columns -Greeks vs Amazons, Lapiths vs Centaurs -Marble •Distyle in antis •3 step stylobate •Curved cornice •Asymmetrical •Door in the east naos wall -Maybe for worshipers •Has the oldest known example of the corinthian column •Orignally another temple here •Daring and innovative design of using all 3 orders -Corinthian columns isn’t used on the exterior •For Apollo Epikourios (Apollo the Helper)•Lacks some of the optical refinements -No curved stylobate •Columns have entasis •Built by Iktinos (Architect of the Parthenon)
Tholos to Asklepios at Epidauros- 370BC •Made out of limestone and marble•Lavishly decorated •Doric peristyle -Limestone w/marble stucco •Internal corinthian columns •Rosette decoration inside the metopes•Meander strip with acanthus leaves inside the gutter •Lion head spout antifixes •Marble akroterion -Acanthus leaves •Coffering on the peristyle roof •Marble band in the naos walls •Windows in the naos walls •Snake pit in the naos floor Tholoi •Circular building •Conical or vaulted roof •Can have a peristyle •Opportunity to express themselves-Not constricted by strict orders
Philippeion at Olympia-330BC •Built to commemorate Philip II’s victory over Athens and Thebesat Chaironeia •Finished by Alexander •Chryselephantine statues of Phillip II, Alexander, Olympias, Amyntas and Eurydice •Ionic peristyle •2 Fasciae in the architrave •Elegant•Marble roof tiles •Bronze akroterion of a flower •Red stucco on the naos walls -Imitate brick work
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