Chapter 1 (Intro to Computers and Programming)


Help memorize the vocabulary content of chapter 1 of the textbook, "Programming Logic and Design, 5th Edition".
Andrew Lewis
Flashcards by Andrew Lewis, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrew Lewis
Created by Andrew Lewis over 3 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
A _____ is a set of instructions that a computer follows to perform a task. Program
The physical devices that a computer is made of are referred to as _____. Hardware
The part of a computer that runs programs is called the _____. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Today, CPUs are small chips known as _____. Microprocessors
The computer stores a program while the program is running, as well as the data that the program is working with, in _____. Main Memory
This is a volatile type of memory that is used only for temporary storage while a program is running. Random-Access Memory (RAM)
A type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time -- even when there is no power to the computer -- is called _____. Secondary Storage
A component that collects data from people or other devices and sends it to the computer is called an _____. Input Device
A video display is what kind of device? Output Device
A _____ is enough memory to store a letter of the alphabet or a small number. Byte
A byte is made up of eight _____. Bits
In a _____ numbering system, all numeric values are written as sequences of 0s and 1s. Binary
A bit that is turned off represents the following value: 0
A set of 128 numeric codes that represent the English letters, various punctuation marks, and other characters is _____. American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
An extensive encoding scheme that can represent the characters of many of the languages in the world is _____. Unicode
Negative numbers are encoded using the _____ technique. Two's Compliment
Real numbers are encoded using the _____ technique. Floating-Point
The tiny dots of color that digital images are composed of are called _____. Pixels
If you were to look at a machine language program, you would see _____. A stream of binary numbers.
In the _____ part of the fetch-decode-execute cycle, the CPU determines which operation it should perform. Decode
Computers can only execute programs that are written in _____. Machine Language
The _____ translates an assembly language program to a machine language program. Assembler
The words that make up a high-level programming language are called _____. Key Words (Reserved Words)
The rules that must be followed when writing a program are called _____. Syntax
A _____ program translates a high-level language program into a separate machine language program. Compiler
Programs on a computer are also known as _____. Software
A _____ is a person with the training and skills necessary to design, create, and test computer programs. Programmer (Software Developer)
When a computer is performing the tasks that a program tells it to do, the computer is _____. Running (Executing)
A nonvolatile type of memory the can be read, but not changed or altered in any way. Read-Only Memory (ROM)
When memory doesn't lose its contents even when the computer's power is turned off, it is classified as _____. Nonvolatile
When memory loses its contents as a program closes or the computer's power is turned off, it is classified as _____. Volatile
The most common type of secondary storage devices. It stores data by magnetically encoding it onto a circular disk. Disk Drive
A secondary storage device that stores data in solid-state memory. Has no moving parts and operates faster than a traditional disk drive. Solid State Drive
Individual instructions that a programmer uses to write a program in a high-level programming language. Statements
A program that both translates and executes the instructions in a high-level language program. As it reads each individual instruction in the program, it converts it to a machine language instruction and then immediately executes it. Interpreter
The statements that a programmer writes in a high-level language are known as _____. Source Code (Code)
A mistake such as a misspelled key word, a missing punctuation character, or the incorrect use of an operator. Syntax Error
Specialized software used by most programmers to write a program. Is packaged with a compiler/interpreter, a text editor with specialized features for writing high-level programming language, and useful tools for testing program and locating errors. Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
Programs that control and manage the basic operations of a computer are known as _____. System Software
The most fundamental set of programs on a computer. Controls the internal operations of the computer's hardware, manages all of the devices connected to the computer, allows data to be saved and retrieved from storage devices, and allows other programs to run on the computer. Operating System
A _____ performs a specialized task that enhances the computer's operation or safeguards data. Utility Program
Programs that programmers use to create, modify, and test software are known as _____. Software Development Tools
Programs that make a computer useful for everyday tasks. People normally spend most of their time running on their computers. Application Software
Small devices that plug into the computer and appear to the system as a disk drive. These drives don't actually contain a disk drive, but instead use flash memory. Universal Serial Bus Drives (USB Drives, Memory Sticks, Flash Drives)
Allows data to be stored within a remote server via the Internet or via a company's private network. Can be accessed from any device that has a network connection. Cloud Storage
Any data the computer collects from people and from other devices is known as _____. Input
Any data the computer produces for people for other devices is known as _____. Output
Term used to describe anything that uses binary numbers (machine language) to function. Digital
Data that is stored in binary is known as _____. Digital Data
Any device that works with binary data is known as a _____. Digital Device
The entire set of instructions that a CPU can execute is known as an _____. Instruction Set
In the _____ part of the fetch-decode-execute cycle, the next instruction from memory is read into the CPU. Fetch
In the _____ part of the fetch-decode-execute cycle, the operation is performed. Execute
Created as an alternative to machine language for humans to understand more easily. Uses short words (mnemonics) for instructions instead of binary numbers. Assembly Language
Assembly language is also known as _____. Low-Level Language
Language that allows you to create powerful and complex programs without knowing how the CPU works, and without writing large numbers of low-level instructions. High-Level Language
Special characters that perform various operations on data are known as _____. Operators
List the five major components of a computer system. Central Processing Unit (CPU), Main Memory, Secondary Storage Devices, Input Devices, and Output Devices
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