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andreatong18
Flashcards by andreatong18, updated more than 1 year ago
andreatong18
Created by andreatong18 over 7 years ago
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Cell and Molecular Flashcards on Untitled_2, created by andreatong18 on 10/15/2013.

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What is Hormesis? Term used to refer to a biphasic dose response to an environmental agent characterized by a low dose stimulation or beneficial effect and a high dose inhibitory or toxic effect.
What is meant by a benchmark dose? A dose or concentration that produces a predetermined change in response rate of an adverse effect compared to the background effect.
What is the placebo effect? The beneficial effect in a patient following a particular treatment that arises from the patients expectations concerning the treatment rather than from the treatment itself.
Explain the field of metabonomics Understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data.
What is the crucial question for toxicologists in 2014? To be answered later
What is a case cohort study? Aim to achieve the same goal as in cohort studies but more efficiently using a sample of the denominators of the exposed and unexposed cohorts.
What is chronotoxicity? The study of the interactions between toxic substances and biological rhythms.
What are the advantages of using a gnotobiont in toxicity studies? A gnotobiotic animal is an animal in which only certain known strains of bacteria and other microorganisms are present. Advantages are that you can study specific interactions of substances in the presence of particular bacteria and microorganisms.
Give an example of an iatrogenic effect. A common iatrogenic effect is caused by drug interaction, when pharmacotherapists fail to check for all medications a patient is taking and prescribe new ones that interact agonistically or antagonistically.
What is meant by an idiosyncratic affect? Idiosyncratic drug reactions, also known as type B reactions, are drug reactions that occur rarely and unpredictably amongst the population.
What is pharmacogenetics? Pharmacogenetics refers to genetic differences in metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.
What is the "Threshold of Toxicological Concern" A pragmatic but conservative science-based tool to help regulators and industry assess potential health risk from substances when specific toxicological data are not yet available.
Give an example of species specific sensitivity. Chili peppers produce the pungent vanilloid compound capsaicin, which offers protection from predatory mammals. Birds are indifferent to the pain-producing effects of capsaicin and therefore serve as vectors for seed dispersal. Like its mammalian counterpart the chicken receptor is activated by heat or protons, consistent with the fact that both mammals and birds detect noxious heat and experience thermal hypersensitivity.
What is the toxicity exposure ratio? The toxicity exposure ratio is the ratio of the measure of the effects to the estimated exposure. Eg. LD50
Can 'in vitro tests' provide useful toxicological information? In vitro testing methods are employed primarily to identify potentially hazardous chemicals and/or to confirm the lack of certain toxic properties in the early stages of the development of potentially useful new substances such as therapeutic drugs, agricultural chemicals and food additives.
Define the term Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides in an organism. It occurs when an organism absorbs a toxic subsance at a rate greater than that at which the substance is lost.
Give an example of an antidote and how it works. 4-methylpyrazole is indicated for use as an antidote in confirmed or suspected methanol poisoning. 4-methylpyrazole is a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. 4-methylpyrazole distributes rapidly into total body water. Following multiple doses, formepizole rapidly induces its own metabolism via the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system.
In terms of drug interaction, what is the difference between synergism and potentiation? Synergism: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance that affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. Potentiation: Interaction between two or more agents resulting in a pharmacologic response greater than the sum of individual responses to each drug or agent.
What is the greater threat to public health at the moment? How can toxicologists play a role? Mental Health
What is the difference between toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics? Toxicokinetics is the description of what rate a chemical will enter the body and what happens to it once it is in the body. Toxicodynamics describes the dynamic interactions of a toxicant with a biological target and its biological effects.
What is a Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK)? What information can it provide? PBPK is a mathematical modelling technique for predicting the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of synthetic or natural chemical substances in humans and other animal species. PBPK modelling is used in pharmaceutical research and drug development, and in health risk assessment for cosmetics or general chemicals.
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