Bis2B exam

miriamadaeze
Flashcards by miriamadaeze, updated more than 1 year ago
miriamadaeze
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For Davis Bis 2B

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Variety of life, including variation among genes, species and functional traits Biodiversity
process that produces adaptations resulting from differential reproductive success among organisms in the same population Natural Selection
Characteristics that suit organism to their environment Adaptation
Number of viable offspring produced during an organism's lifetime Reproductive Success
Reproductive success of an organism relative to others in the same population Fitness
What are the conditions necessary for natural selection? Phenotypic variation- variation in traits, different fitnesses, and phenotypic variation is heritable
What are the three modes of natural selection Stabilizing, Directional, and Diversifying or disruptive
Industrial Melanism in peppered moths According to Kettlewell, Bird predation. the carbonaria moths blended in better during pollution so their frequency increased
Severe drought caused a drop in population and only large seeds were available and cracked by birds with large beaks. what kind of selection was this? Directional selection
Give an example of a frequency dependent experiment Rare and common guppies were put in different pools. the predators had developed a search pattern for the common so the rare one increased thus creating polymorphism
Phenotypic variation during an individuals lifetime caused by environmental variation Phenotypic plasticity
Test for phenotypic plasticity by Losos Raised lizards in cages with only narrow perches and they developed shorter legs and its stronger in females than males.
Increases the frequency of genes from individuals with the highest fitness at expense of others Individual selection
increases the fitness of other individuals at its own expense Altruist
Increases the frequency of genes from individuals with highest inclusive fitness Kin Selection
individuals fitness + relative's fitness Inclusive fitness
can live exclusively on inorganic sources of carbon, nitrogen, and other resources autotrophs
use energy from sunlight to power metabolism, growth, and resource gathering Photoautotrophs
use preformed organic molecules as food heterotrophs
relationship between the benefit and cost of a trait in a different environment Trade-off
what kind of morph occurs in area with heavy surf steamlined morph
what kind of morph occurs in areas with calmer waters bumpy morph
All life functions cannot be simultaneously maximized, leading to tradeoffs principle of allocation
an aquatic heterotroph that removes suspended particles from water filter feeders
these feeders consume dead organic matter deposit feeder
active hunters of live organisms using speed/stealth predators
feed on a variety of species to obtain a balanced diet generalists
evolution of increased efficiency of feeding on few species specialists
total range of environmental conditions that are suitable for a species existence without the effects of other species fundamental niche
part of the fundamental niche that a species actually occupies caused by interactions with other species realized niche
these animals keep a constant body temperature regulators (humans)
their body temperature is a reflection of the environmental temperature Thermal Conformers
obtain their body heat from the environment (fish, amphibians) Ectotherms
Produce their own body heat by shivering, oxidizing brown fat Endotherms
relatively long term response by an organism to environmental change acclimation
why is metabolic rate lower in winter acclimated fox? because in the winter, they have more insulation and brown fat and don't have to shiver to keep warm but its opposite in summer so this increases their metabolic rate
what are some traits that decrease water loss in plants? Waxy covering to leaf, low surface area, wilting
what are some traits that increase water loss in plants? deep tap roots, storing water during times of plenty
distribution of organisms in space at one moment in time Dispersion
what are the types of dispersion? Random pattern, clumped (most common) and uniform pattern (territory)
compare home range to territory all animals have home range, not all have territories. Home ranges can overlap but territories cannot and finally territories are defended by home ranges aren't.
what are the four functions of territory Feeding, Mating, predator avoidance, and reduce disease
What is the evidence for feeding hypothesis Ovenbirds Territory size varies according to variation in food density.
Evidence for mating hypothesis Territory size in lizards saw that adults had larger territories that allowed for more female territories as opposed to juveniles
why are some animals territorial and others not? Economics of Resource Defense theory: If territoriality net benefit outweighs the cost then they own a territory
When individuals live together in groups due to their mutual attraction for one another Sociality
Interactions among individuals in which all benefit Cooperation
Why are some species social and others solitary Species should be social when benefits > costs
Study: Relations between flocking and predation in Starlings by Powell Individuals in flock spent less time surveying for predators, had less reaction time, and spent more time feeding
What was the outcome of study on Merlins predation on sandpipers Flocking reduces the success rate of the merlins catching the sandpipers
The entire span of an organism from fertilization to death Life cycle
Juvenile forms emerge from mother in adult like form direct development
When offsprings begin in larval stage with metamorphosis into adult form Indirect development
2 benefits of dispersal escape from competition and avoid inbreeding with relatives
2 costs of dispersal high risk of individual morality, reduced feeding and growth
no bonding, doesn't go beyond copulation. one night stand promiscuity
one male mates and remains associated with one female Monogamy
member of one sex mates and remains associated with more than one member of the opposite sex Polygamy
One male mates and remains with more than one female polygyny
males set up large territories, allow female, but excludes other males resource defense polygyny
male follows the females around as they forage and drive off other males from their vicinity Female defense polygyny
Area where males assembles and stake out individual territories then females come and choose mates Lek
One female mates with more than one male Polyandry
The most common- females set up large territories and exclude other females Resource defense polyandry
evolution of traits which may decrease an individual's chance of survival but increase its ability to acquire mates sexual selection
a period of ritualized behavioral pattern before mating courtship
Sexual dimorphism and its characteristics sexes have different morphological traits: In polygyny, males are larger and showier and in polyandry its the opposite.
Investment of time and energy towards offspring Parental Care: Polygyny-higher in females and polyandry- higher in males. in monogamous male and female provide parental care.
Study of Nesting by Redwing Blackbirds in Marshes the size of the territory of the male determines how many females he will mate with.
A group of same species individuals living in a particular place population
number of individuals in the population Population Size
Number of individuals per unit area in the population population density
two ways to measure population density absolute density and relative density
does population density INCREASE or DECREASE with body size? decreases
why is population density relative to body size greater for mammals than birds? birds are more territorial than mammals.
study of the vital statistics of a population and how they vary with age demographics
list of the vital statistics of a population life table
group of individuals in a population born about the same time cohort
Proportion of individuals born that survives to age X survivorship (lx)
Average number of offspring produced by an individual of age X Age specific fecundity (Mx)
Average number of offspring produced by an individual during its entire lifetime Net Reproductive Rate (Ro). When >1, population decreases, when <1, population decreases and when =1, constant
Ave. age from when an individual is born to when its offspring are born Generation time (T)
Age specific expectation of future reproduction Reproductive Value (Vx).
Practical application of Reproductive value(Vx) Fishing restrictions. large fishes should be restricted not small because they have highest Vx
change in the number of individuals per time unit population growth
process when individuals share resources that are in short supply competition
model of population growth with intraspecific competition Logistic growth model. Also understand why its "S" shaped
study of how organisms are able to survive and function in their environment physiological ecology
capacity of an organism to survive or reproduce when subjected to stressful environmental factors tolerance
amount of energy used per time unit metabolic rate
study of catfish and salmon and why do catfishes acclimate better? in a graph of lethal temperature(y-axis) v. acclimating tempera.(x-axis), the catfishes had the steeper slope and they acclimate better because they have more isozymes than salmon and natural selection favors individual with acclimating ability.
In what environment is r favored? what about k? R is for harsh, unpredictable environmental condition and k is for benign, predictable environment.
Scientific study of interrelationship between organism and their environment Ecology
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