Ethics in Allied Health


Ethics in Allied Health
Janelle Roco
Flashcards by Janelle Roco, updated more than 1 year ago
Janelle Roco
Created by Janelle Roco over 1 year ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
set of moral and social codes of behavior and conduct Ethics
attempts to systematize, defend, and recommend concepts of right and wrong behavior Ethical theories
code where legal obligations are enforceable by the state's power without regard to an individual's conscience penalties enforced by law when you break it legal code
the pursuit of wisdom Philosophy
code wherein moral obligation focuses on an individual's conscience or on society's opinion about behavior when you break it, there is possible disapproval from segments of society Ethical code
Why is ethics important in HC? HC professionals encounter people with different ethical beliefs that can affect how they consider medical treatments for a particular patient
branch of ethical theory that considers the origin and meaning of ethical principles Metaethics
set forth, principles that govern the moral and ethical conduct of all members of an organization Code of Ethics
Describe the two branches of metaethics 1. Ethical principles that exist independently and can be classified as eternal law from the universe or from a divine source 2. Ethical principles from people's beliefs that are created collectively or individually
What should an HCW consider when working with patients with a set of religious or ethical belief? - pain management - approach to life and death - reproductive health
a branch of ethical theory that involves determining the standards that regulate right and wrong conduct Normative Ethics
Branches of Normative Ethics 1. Virtue theory 2. Consequentialist theory 3. Duty theory
normative theory where character of a person as displayed by the virtues they possess Also identifies virtues or character traits people should cultivate Virtue theory
Virtues that should be cultivated in the medical field - Competent - Careful - Compassionate
a normative ethical theory that believes that an action is morally right if the consequences of that actions are favorable from where many ethical dilemmas of medine are framed consequentialist theory
a person's obligation from the standpoint of morality Duty theory
taken by physicians and pertains to the ethical practice of medicine Hippocratic Oath
proper form of social interaction in a given culture or community Etiquette an art of interaction
Medical etiquette - politeness - professional dress courtesy - special courtesies depending on their work setting
Why is healthcare in US an ethical issue? Access to healthcare is determined by wealth rather than medical or ethical principles
signed into law by Pres. Obama on March 2010 making health insurance coverage mandatory and subsidizing or helping to pay for private insurance acquired by the poor Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act or Affordable Care Act (ACA)
payment system endorsed by many physicians wherein HC costs are paid primarily by the government rather than multiple private insurers Single-payer system
How can an insurer-controlled healthcare system affect the decision of doctors/HCW? Doctors' treatment decision is affected by the limitations on what insurers will cover in terms of service type, cost, and duration
it is a list of approved drugs from which doctors must prescribe to have insurance cover the pharmaceuticals Formulary
a practice of traveling to other countries for medical procedures because of lower costs Medical tourism
an epidemic that becomes very widespread and affects a whole region, continent, or the world Pandemic
code that forbids performing medical experiments on humans without their consent Nuremberg Code
requires that patients give informed consent before the start of any medical treatment Patient Autonomy
takes autonomy away from the patients and gives it to the medical personnel or the govt. for society's benefit Medical Paternalism
Approved by FDA in 1996 permitting emergency research without patient consent under certain conditions Exception for Informed Consent (EFIC)
a non-profit organization operating the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) and organ allocation United Network for Organ Sharing
established OPTN in 1984 in order to have a national system to address fair allocation of organ for transplant National Organ Transplant Act of 1984
an act that authorizes gifts of the body or any part of the body Uniform Anatomical Gift Act
allows surrogate decision-maker to attempt to establish what decision an incompetent patient would make if they were competent to do so Substituted judgment/consent (Strunk v. Strunk)
this case stated that children cannot participate in health-related studies with known hazards without prior judicial approval Grimes v. Kennedy Kieger Institute. Inc.
caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and was believed to originate from Africa; used to be called gay-related immune deficiency Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
What should an HCW/physician do when they discover that their patient is infected with HIV? An HCW/doctor has a right to decline patients but only when the physician-patient relationship has not been established. An HCW has a legal and ethical duty to treat patient and to avoid engaging in stigmatizing behaviors
adopted in 2000 to increase the safety of needle use during treatment of patients with bloodborne pathogens Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act
Examples of nonnatural conception 1. Test-tube fertilization 2. Artificial insemination
The difference of embryo adoption and embryo donation is an ethical issue of whether an embryo is a person or property
science that deals with "improving" hereditary qualities Eugenics
encourages reproduction by those considered geneticaly superior Positive Eugenics
limits or discourages reproduction by those considered to be genetically inferior Negative Eugenics
A medical technique used to test fetal DNA in amniotic fluid, allowing physicians to identify genetic abnormalities from birtt Amniocentesis
a couple will be allowed to proceed with a wrongful death suit against a fertility clinic that inadvertently discarded their fertilized egg Miller v. American Infertility Group 2005
a state law regulating contraceptive use by married persons is an invasion of privacy (governmental intrusion Griswold v. Connecticut 1965
US SC made a landmark decision regarding abortion by applying the rights to privacy to abortion Roe v. Wade 1973
when a fetus begins to move in utero Quickening
SC replaced trimester approach with undue burden; before the fetus becomes viable, a woman's right to terminate the pregnancy is subject only to restrictions that don't place undue burden on the right to have abortion after fetus becomes viable, state have a right to restric abortion with exceptions Planned Parenthood of Southern Pennsylvania v. Casey
approved by FDA in 2000 known as RU-486; used in nonsurgical or medical abortion mifepristone
make causing the death of a fetus a crime separate and independent from any crime committed against the woman carrying a fetus Fetal Homicide Laws
allow the estate of a stillborn child to sue for injuries inflicted on the fetus while in the womb if the fetus was viable at the time injuries were inflicted Tort of Wrongful Life
a child born with a painful congenital deformity that was detectable but wasn't detected or disclosed while abortion was an option Wrong Life
parent's claim against a doctor for damages caused by the birth of a child that occur when a doctor fails to detect and disclose a child's birth defects in time to permit abortion Wrongful Birth
instructions people may give regarding their wishes concerning medical treatment in the event that they're unable to make those decisions Advanced Medical Directives
Advance Medical Directives examples - Living Wills - DPA or Durable Power of Attorney - Patients' Right to Die (PRD) - Patient Self-Determination Act of 1991 - Assisted Suicide - Euthanasia - Do-Not-Resuscitate Oder
different from a DNR order, it expresses patient's wishes regarding are in the event of a terminal condition; needs to be extremely detailed Living Will
authorizes a person to make medical decisions for an incapacitated patient Durable Power of Attorney or DPA
in Cruzan v. Director, Missouri DOH case, the patient have the rights to reject medical treatment that could sustain life - establish the right of patients to express their wish directly in an advanced medical directive Patients' Right to Die
requires hospital that receive Medicare and Medicaid fund to provide written info to each patient concerning patient's right under state law to make decisions concerning medical care and formulate AMD Patient Self-Determination Act of 1991
convicted of illegally administering a controlled substance without a license to practice medicine Jack Kevorkian
when a patient takes action to terminate their life using means supplied by another person ruled by the 14th Ammendment that it doesn't creat a fundamental right to assisted suicide; unconstitutional in Canada Assisted Suicide
"mercy killing"; when a person takes action that causes the death of another person to relieve suffering illegal in US; practiced in Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Neatherlands in narrow circumstances Euthanasia
prevent efforts to resuscitate those who have exhibited signs of death; raises common ethical issue in medicine Do-N0t-Resuscitate Order
person who is authorized to make decision for another person Proxy
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