P3 - Sustainable Energy

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Flashcards by franimal, updated more than 1 year ago
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Cambridge IGCSE Physics Flashcards on P3 - Sustainable Energy, created by franimal on 10/30/2013.

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Question Answer
What is meant be 'energy is conserved'? Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
What is a primary energy source, with an example? One that occurs naturally - coal, oil, wind, gas, wood, waves and sunlight.
What is a secondary energy source, with an example? An energy source generated using a primary source - electricity, hot water used in heating systems, steam.
What is biofuel, with an example? A fuel that comes from biomass, or organic material. These could be wood, straw, sewage or sugar.
What is sustainability? Using resources and the environment to meet the needs of people today without damaging the Earth or reducing resources for people in the future.
What is power? The rate at which energy is used.
What is 1 watt? 1 watt (W) uses 1 joule (J) every second.
What is a kilowatt-hour and how many joules does it stand for? 1 kilowatt (1000 W) X 1 hour (3,600 s) = 1 kWh (3,600,000 J)
What is the unit for energy used? The kilowatt-hour.
How is cost of energy worked out? Cost = kilowatt-hours X pence per kilowatt-hour
How is power calculated? power (W) = voltage (V) X current (A)
What is the mains voltage in the UK? 230 V
Why does the energy bill not account for all the energy our lives use? Include an example. There's other stuff - the energy cost of things like packaging, food, driving, armed forces, government and computer servers.
How is an efficiency percentage calculated? (energy usefully transferred) divided by (energy supplied to the appliance) X 100
Describe a Sankey diagram. Branching arrows show how much energy is used and how much is lost as heat etc. The width of the arrows always adds up the width of the Sankey.
What happens when a bar magnet is moved into or out of a coil? A current is generated or 'induced' in the coil.
What is this magnet and coil thing called? electromagnetic induction
What is a.c.? Alternating current is generated by electromagnetic induction.
How does a thermal power station work? Fuel is burnt to heat water, making steam that turns a turbine, turning a magnet in a generator, producing electricity.
Why aren't thermal power stations efficient? Energy is wasted, carried away as heat in steam and exhaust gases.
What are the four advantages of nuclear power? No CO2 is produced. Much less uranium is needed for the same energy output. There hundreds of years worth of uranium fuels left. Energy is cheaper!
What are the 5 disadvantages of nuclear power? The waste is dangerous and has to be stored. It's a security threat. It's non-renewable. Uranium is sourced from unstable countries. The reactors have to be dismantled - this is expensive.
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