Qualitative Chemistry, C1

Rannia Shehrish
Flashcards by Rannia Shehrish, updated more than 1 year ago
Rannia Shehrish
Created by Rannia Shehrish over 5 years ago


University Admissions Chemistry Flashcards on Qualitative Chemistry, C1, created by Rannia Shehrish on 08/21/2015.

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Question Answer
Quantum number 1. principal, n (shell) 2. subsidiary, l (subshell) 3. Magnetic, m (orbital) 4. spin, s
To find the number of magnetic quantum numbers, what equation do we use? 2L+1
Relation between the 4 quantum numbers Principal, n=1,2,3,4,... subsidiary, L = 0 to (n-1) magnetic = -L.....0.....+L spin = ±1/2
Energy of an orbital energy = n + L eg. energy of 4s² = 4+0 = 4
Values of s, p, d, f s = 0 p = 1 d = 2 f =3
No two electrons in an atom can have the same values for all four quantum numbers. Pauli's exclusion principle
Electrons first enter into lower energy orbitals and subsequent electrons enter into higher energy orbital gradually. Aufbau Principle
Electron pairing will not take place in orbitals of same energy until each orbital is singly filled. Hund's Rule
Stability depends on: 1. Exchange energy 2. symmetry 1. The more the exchange energy, the more the stability 2. Symmetry leads to stability
1 angstrom 1Å=10⁻¹⁰
Equation relating wavelength, frequency and wave velocity velocity = wavelength X frequency
Speed on light in miles/second 186,000 miles/sec
Which EM wave is used for the following? 1. Broadcasting 2. Physiotherapy 3. cooking and telephone transmission 4. Cancer treatment 5. medical diagnosis 6. Analysis of atomic and molecular spectroscopy 1. Radio 2. Infrared 3. Microwave 4. Gamma-rays 5. X-rays 6. UV
Which EM waves have the following wavelength? 1. 800nm to 300,000nm 2. 10^6 to 10^8 3. 10^-3 to 10^-1nm 4. 10^-1 to 10nm 5. 10 to 750nm 6. 10^8 to 10^12nm 7. 400 to 700nm 1. Infrared 2. microwave 3. Gamma 4. X-rays 5. UV 6. Radio 7. Visible
The solar spectrum is a......... continuous spectrum
Planck's Quantum theory E=hf
Emission spectrum of hydrogen Lyman - UV Balmer - Visible and UV Pashchen - Infrared Brackett - Infrared Pfund - Infrared
Fluorescent: 1. absorbs 2. emits 1. 200 - 375 nm 2. 400 - 780 nm
Use of infrared: 1. treat skin diseases and relieve pain 2. Oncology 3. Vascular disorders 4. respiratory disorders 5. Skeletal and neuromuscular disorders 6. Surgery 7. Tissue viability
MRI: 1. Brain, muscle, connective tissue and tumours. 2. large blood vessels 3. congenital CVD 4. joint problems 5. liver, kidney, spleen, breasts.
Flame test: Green Copper
Flame test: persistent golden yellow Sodium
Flame test: Lilac or violet Potassium
Flame test: Dull orange red Calcium
Flame test: apple green Barium
Flame test: Crimson red Strontium
Flame test: Green flashes Zinc or Manganese
Flame test: Dull bluish white lead and bismuth
Units of solubility mol/L g/L
All Group I, Ammonium and nitrate ions are...... Soluble
Most halides and sulphates are soluble except.... Lead, mercury and silver halides and lead, calcium, mercury and barium sulphates
Most carbonates, phosphates, hydroxides and sulfides are.... insoluble
1. Ionic product < solubility product 2. Ionic product = solubility product 3. Ionic product > solubility product 1. Unsaturated 2. Saturated 3. Supersaturated. Precipitation occurs.
At a particular temperature, the solubility product is .... constant
Most silver salts are.... insoluble. except AgNO3
Soluble Carbonates and phosphates are of Group I and Ammonium
Soluble Sulfides are Group I, Group II and ammonium sulfides
Potassium Ferrocyanide: 1. Reddish brown ppt 2. Pale blue 3. Deep blue 1. Copper 2. Iron II 3. Iron III
H2S is added to the salt solution to give white ppt Zinc
Ammonium oxolate reacts with the solution to give a white ppt Calcium
Potassium pyroantimonate is added to the solution to give white ppt Sodium
Nessler's solution is added to give Brown ppt Ammonium ion
Barium nitrate or lead acetate is added to the solution to give a white ppt sulphate
1. barium nitrate and heat 2. barium nitrate and aqueous solution 1. Carbonate 2. Sulphate
Nitric acid followed by silver nitrate gives: 1. white ppt 2. cream ppt 3. yellow ppt 1. Chloride 2. Bromide 3. Iodide
Add sodium hydroxide, white ppt. With excess the ppt dissolves. zinc
Add ammonium hydroxide - white ppt. Add sodium hydroxide - ppt dissolves. Add ammonium hydroxide again - white ppt forms. Aluminium
Potassium ferricyanide: 1. blue ppt 2. brown ppt 1. iron II 2. iron III
1. potassium ferrocyanide give reddish brown ppt. 2. ammonium hydroxide gives light blue ppt. In excess, the ppt dissolves to give a deep blue solution. 3. Potassium iodide gives white ppt. Copper
Cubic NaCl, KCl, Diamond, Zinc blende, Ag, Cu
Tetragonal Tin, Tin oxide (white tin), tin chloride and TiO2
Orthorhombic Rhombic sulphur, BaSO4, KNO3, PbCO3
Monoclinic Monoclinic Sulfur, CaSO4.2H2O, Na2SO4.10H2O, FeSO4.7H2O
Rhombohedral CaCO3 (Calcite), As, Sb, NaNO3, Ice
Triclinic K2Cr2O7, H2BO3, CuSO3.5H2O
Hexagonal Graphite, ZnO, CdS, Quartz
Simple Distillation 1. Used to separate liquids which do not separate at b.p at normal rtp. 2. Difference between the b.p of the two liquids has to be at least 60C.
Simple distillation can be used to separate: 1. Chloroform (bp 334K) and aniline (bp 457K). 2. Benzene (bp 353K) and aniline (bp 457K). 3. Ether (bp 308K) and toluene (457K).
Fractional distillation Difference between the bp should be less than 40C.
Uses of fractional distillation 1. Refining of petroleum. 2. Separation of coal-tar. 3. Separation of light oil. 4. Fermentation of sugar.
Steam distillation 1. Volatile in steam and not miscible in water. 2. High vapour pressure. 3. Non- volatile impurity.
Atmospheric pressure = vapor pressure of organic substance + vapor pressure of water
For solvent extraction you need an organic solvent in which the impurities do not dissolve.
Chromatography is of 2 types. They are: 1. Adsorption 2. Partition
Adsorption chromatography is of 2 types. They are: 1. Column 2. Thin layer
Partition chromatography is of 2 types. They are: 1. Paper 2. Gas
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