Ch. 2 Ancient Mesopotamia & Egypt

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Ch.2 Voabulary

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Mesopotamia "land between the rivers; located in the
Sumerians the creators of the first Mesopotamia Civilization
Polytheistic is belief in many gods
Ziggurat temple was often built atop a massive stepped tower
theocracy a government by divine authority
Cuneiform system of writing
Hummurabi's Law Code code of hummurabi is well preserved babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia about 1754 BC years ago
Patriarchal a society dominated by men
Nile River begin in heart of Africa & courses north- ward for more than 40,000 miles, Longest River in the world
Inundation annual flooding of the Nile River
Cataracts waterfalls along the Nile River
King Menes King who united Lower & Upper Egypt around 3100 BC
dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
pharaoh a ruler in ancient Egypt
vizier the steward of the whole land
Fertilize Crescent the region in the Middle East which curves, like a quarter-moon shape; known as the Cradle of Civilization
silt rich black mud left behind from the flooding of the Nile River
"KA" ancient Egyptians thought that when someone died the Ka, or the life force, left the physical body of the mummy of the small statues that were left in the tomb
mummification it was a very important to ancient Egyptian religious beliefs that the human body was preserved. The process lasted up to 70 days!
canopic jars containers used to hold the internal organs (lungs, stomach, intestines, liver) of the decreased that was going to be mummified; the jars had lids shaped as the heads of the 4 sons of Horus
Sarcophagus a sarcophagus formed the outer layer of protection for a royal mummy, with several layers of coffins nested within, and was often carved out of alabaster
King Khufu (aka Cheops (KEE-ops) earned everlasting fame for being the pharaoh responsible for the Great Pyramid at Giza which he built to serve as his tomb
the Great Pyramid largest of the 3 pyramids at Giza; built by King Khufu; the only monument of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World to survive
King Khufu's Boat discovered in 1952 buried under the Great Pyramid; it would be needed to ferry King Khufu's spirit across the sky to be with Ra, the sun of god.
Great Sphinx one of the largest and oldest statues in the world. Archeologists believe that it was carved around 2500 BC and that the head is meant to be the likeness of the Pharaoh Khafra.
Hieroglyphics Egyptian picture writing
The Rosetta Stone a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek), using three scripts (Hieroglyphic, demotic, and greek)
Hyksos invaded Egypt; and ruled for 200 years; introduced the horse drawn chariot
Hatshepsut (hat-SHEEP-soot) first great women ruler in history; she ruled Egypt as king not queen. Sculptures and masks show her with a false beard.
Akhenanten (aka Amenhotep) rejected the traditional religion in favor of worshiping the Aten, or sun disc, after whom the renamed himself, He closed all the temples to the old gods and obliterated their names form monuments.
King Tut ( Tutankhamen) 17 year old boy pharaoh whose tomb survived untouched by grave robbers; more than 3,000 artifacts discovered in his tomb
Ramses the 2nd Ramses the Great reigned 67 years; fathered over 100 children; defeated the Hittites, the other superpower of ancient times; he declared himself a living god
papyrus reed like plant that grows on the Nile River Ancient Egyptians used to write on
cultural diffusion the spreading of ideas from one culture to another culture
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