Long-answer questions HISTO & EMBRYOLOGY

Shireen Ahmed
Flashcards by Shireen Ahmed, updated more than 1 year ago
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Long answers to histology and embryology questions
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EPITHELIAL TISSUE The types of simple epithelia are: 1. Simple squamous epithelium 2. Simple cuboidal epithelial 3. Simple columnar epithelium 4. Pseudostratified columnar cilliated epithelium 5. Transitional epithelium of Henle
The cellular types evident in the simple columnar resorptive epithelium are: 1. Resorptive cells 2. Goblet cells 3. Germinative cells
The cellular types evident in the transitional epithelium of Henle are: 1. Basal 2. Polyhedral 3. Superficial
Write some of the most specific microscopic features of the stratified epithelia: 1. Convoluted basal membrane 2. More than one cell layer 3. Difference in cell shapes
Write the layers of the stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium: 1. Stratum basale 2. Stratum spinosum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum lucidum 5. Stratum corneum
The regeneration of the stratified epithelia is associated to the _____a_____ cells localized ________b________. a) Germinative b) In the basal membrane
Depending on type of secretion the glandular epithelia are: 1. Exocrine epithelium 2. Endocrine epithelium
Depending on type of their secretion, the Acini are: 1. Mucous 2. Serous 3. Mixed
Depending on shape of their secretory units, the exocrine glands are: 1. Alveolar glands 2. Tubular glands 3. Tubulo-acinar glands
Write the types of the stratified squamous epithelium: 1) Stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium 2) Stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium 3) Stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium of cornea
By light microscopic observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, epithelial membrane resting upon basal membrane (lamina) is observed. The cell nuclei lying at different levels in a perpendicular section. Some of the epithelial cells have cilia on their apical part. What type of epithelial tissue is this? A: Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
By light microscopic observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, epithelial membrane lying on straight basal membrane (lamina) is observed. The apical part of the cells is striated and their nuclei are ovoid, perpendicular orientated to the basal lamina. Some cells appear with unstained cytoplasm. What type of epithelial tissue is this? A: Simple columnar resorptive epithelium of small intestine
By light microscope observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, epithelial membrane lying on convoluted basal membrane (lamina) is seen. The epithelial sheet is composed of different in shape cells - columnar, polygonal and flattened arranged in layers. There is no border between the epithelial layers. The most superficial cells appear with preserved nuclei. The deeper epithelial layers show basophilia of cell cytoplasm. What type of epithelial tissue is this? A: Stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium
By light microscope observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, acini composed of high columnar cells with basal basophilic cytoplasm and apical secretory granules are found. The cell nuclei are large and localized in the basal portion of the cytoplasm. The acinus lumen appears very small, narrow. What type of acini are these? A: Serous acini
By light microscope observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin, acini composed of cells with unstained cytoplasm and flattened nuclei localized in its basal part are visible. The acinus lumen appears large and wide. What type of acini are these? A: Mucous acini
CONNECTIVE TISSUE Based on the specific features of their intercellular substance, what are the following main types of connective tissue: 1) w/ undifferentiated intercellular substance 2) w/ fibrous intercellular substance 3) w/ rigid intercellular substance
In functional aspect the connective tissue cells are three main types: 1) Productive 2) Protective 3) Trophic
The certain features of the amorphous (ground) intercellular substance are: 1) Hydrophilia 2) Metachromasia 3) Optical homogenity
The connective tissue cells with protective functions are: 1) Macrophage 2) Mast cell 3) Plasmocyte
The macrophages arise from _____a______ and have _______b_______ function a) Monocytes b) Protective
The granules of mast cells contain: 1) Heparin 2) Serotonin 3) Histamine
The specific staining methods for visualization of the elastic fibers are: 1) Orcein 2) Van Gieson
Depending on the number and localization of the lipid droplets in their cytoplasm, the fat cells (adipocytes) are: 1) Unicellular 2) Multicellular
The osteone is ________a________ and consists of __________b_________ a) Main structural unit of bones b) Osteocytes, osteoclasts and bone lamella
There are three types of cartilage, the are: 1) Hyaline cartilage 2) Elastic cartilage 3) Fibrocartilage
A. Collagenous fibers B. Elastic fibers C. Reticular fibers a. Orcein b. Silver Impregnation c. Eosin A-c. Eosin B-a. Orcein C-b. Silver impregnation
A. Plasma cells B. Macrophages C. Mast cells a. Presence of numerous lysosomes b. Eccentric nucleus with heterochromatin having a "cartwheel" appearance c. Granules with histamine, serotonin and heparin-like substance A - b B - a C - c
By light microscopic observation of paraffin section stained with hematoxylin-eosin. a cartilage with metachromatic stained intercellular substance and isogenous groups of 3-5 cells localized in lacunae is found. What type of cartilage is this? A: Hyaline cartilage
Electron microscopic observation reveals multinucleated bone cell with numerous lysosomes and microvilli on the surface. What is the name of the described cell? A: Osteoclast
By light microscopic observation of paraffin section stained with methylene blue, cells with numerous metachromatic granules in their cytoplasm are found. What is the name of the described cell? A: Mast cell
BLOOD TISSUE The stages of granulocyte development are: 1) Myeloblast 2) Promyelocyte 3) Myelocyte 4) Metamyelocyte
The plasma proteins are: 1) Globulins 2) Albumins 3) Fibrinogen
The cell diameter by the different types of granulocytes is: Granulocytes: Neutrophil - 10-12um Basophil - 10-12um Eosinophil - 12-17um Agranulocytes: Monocytes - 13-20um Lymphocytes - 8-12um
The periods of the embryonic hemopoiesis are: 1) Yolk sack placenta hemopoiesis 2) Liver-spleen hemopoiesis 3) Bone marrow hemopoiesis
The two main structural regions of the blood platelets are: 1) Granulomere 2) Hyalomere
On peripheral blood smear (Giesma staining), a spherical-shaped cell (diameter about 12um) with highly polymorphous nucleus (consisting of 3-5 lobes) and filled with fine granules cytoplasm is found. What is the name of this cell? A: Neutrophil granulocyte
By differential blood count the present correlation into leucocytes is found: Neu - 55% Ba - 1% Eo - 4% Mo - 15% Ly - 25% What is the name of this aberration? A: Monocytosis MONO 55,1,4
By differential blood count the present correlation into leucocytes is found: Neu - 55% Ba - 1% Eo - 12% Mo - 4% Ly - 28% What is the name of this aberration? A: Eosinophilia EOS 55,1,12
A. Monocytes B. Lymphocytes C. Thrombocytes a. lack of nucleus b. kidney-shaped nucleus c. eccentric placed nucleus with heterochromatin arranged in "cartwheel" fashion d. scanty, basophilic cytoplasm e. pale, grey-ish blue stained cytoplasm f. cell diameter about 3-4um A - b, e B - c, d C - a, f
NERVOUS TISSUE The parts of the neuron are: 1) Body (Perikaryon) 2) Axon 3) Dendrites
Depending on the shape of their body, the neurons are: 1) Star-shaped 2) Pear-like 3) Spherical 4) Pyramidal
Depending on the number of their branches, the neurons are: 1) Unipolar 2) Multipolar 3) Pseudopolar 4) Bipolar
Depending on their functions, the neurons are: 1) Sensory neurons 2) Motor neurons 3) Associative neurons 4) Neuroendocrine cells
The central type of neuroglial cells are: 1) Oligodendrocytes 2) Astrocytes 3) Ependyma 4) Microglia
By light microscopic observation of spinal cord on transverse sections stained with toluidinblue, multipolar neurons with cytoplasm filled with blue granules in the anterior horns are observed. What is the name of this organelle? A: Nissl substance
Under electron microscope, a transverse section of cylindrical in shape structure with dark and light lines arranged in concentric manner is observed. Peripherally, a part of cytoplasm with mitochondria and nucleus is visible. What is the name of the structure? A: Myelinated nerve fibre
Under light microscope, on sections from cerebrum stained with AuCl2 star-shaped neurons with numerous long non-branching processes localized in the white matter are observed. Some of the processes attach to the blood vessel walls. What is the name of this cell? A: Fibrous astrocyte
Under light microscope, on sections stained with OsO4 bundles of black coloured fiber-like structures appear. There are gaps in their outer sheath and it is seen to be an incomplete or interrupted cylinder. Radial clefts or fissures, extending through the thickness of the sheath are also visible. What is the name of the structures? A: Myelinated nerve fibers
REPRODUCTIVE TISSUE The consecutive stages (phases) of the spermatogenesis are: 1) Cell multiplication 2) Cell growth 3) Cell differentiation 4) Cell maturation
The ovum is surrounded by: 1) Zona pellucida 2) Corona radiata
The main parts of the spermatozoon are: 1) Head 2) Neck 3) Middle piece 4) Tail
The consecutive stages (phases) of oogenesis are: 1) Cell multiplication 2) Cell growth 3) Cell differentiation
Zona pellucida consists of: 1) Mucoprotein substance 2) Microvilli of the oocyte 3) Contact between oocyte and follicular cells
The types of male germ cells are: 1) Spermatids 2) Spermatozoa 3) Spermatogonia 4) Primary spermatocytes 5) Secondary spermatocytes
Under electron microscope, a round cell with spherical pale nucleus and prominent nucleolus is observed. In the cell cytoplasm mitochondria, elements of Golgi complex and vesicles are arranged in a group and form a common structure localized near the nucleus. What is the name of the described cell? A: Primary oocyte
By electron microscopic observation of transverse section of spermatozoon flagellum, centrally placed microtubules surrounded by filamentous sheath and in spiral fashion arranged mitochondria appear. What part of the spermatozoon is this? A: Middle piece
By light microscopic observation of stain with hematoxylin-eosin section of ovary, a round, big in size cell within a spherical structure appears. The cell is with pale nucleus and prominent nucleolus. Around the cell a homogenous, deeply stained membrane is visible. Outside of it radially arranged cuboidal to cylindrical in shape cells form a layer. What is the name of the described cell? A: Oocyte
A. Head B. Neck (cervix) C. Middle piece (pars intermedia) D. Tail (flagellum) a. acrosome b. mitochondria c. centrioles d. longitudinal filaments A - a B - c C - b D - d
EMBRYOLOGY The parts of the mesoblast are: 1) Epimer 2) Mesomer 3) Hypomer
What are the structures that derive from the somites of the mesoblast: 1) Dermatomes 2) Myotomes 3) Sclerotomes
The placental barrier AFTER the third month consists of: 1) Syncytial trophoblast 2) Mesenchyme of placental villi 3) Epithelium of placental capillaries
The barrier BEFORE the third month consists of: 1) Syncytial trophoblast 2) Mesenchyme of placental villi 3) Epithelium of placental capillaries 4) Cytotrophoblast
Specific for the segmentation by the human embryo is: 1) Totally 2) Asynchronous 3) Unequal
The formation of the chorda dorsalis passes through the following stages: 1) Chordal channel 2) Chordal plate 3) Definitive chorda
The umbilical cord of the newborn baby is built from: 1) Two arteries, one vein 2) Amnion 3) Mucoid tissue
Chorion types are: 1) Chorion laeve 2) Chorion frondosum
The process of the formation of the nervous system passes through the following stages: 1) Neural plate 2) Neural groove 3) Neural tube
Determine the localization of the structure according to its stage of development: A. Zygote B. Blastocysta (day 6-7) C. Blastocysta (day 9) a. free in the uterus cavity b. in the oviduct c. in the endometrium A - b B - a C - c
Associate the parts of the mesoblast with the corresponding activities: A. Epimer B. Mesomer C. Hypomer a. dermatomes b. splanchnopleura c. sclerotomes d. myotomes e. nephrotomes f. somatopleura A. Dermatomes, sclerotomes, myotomes B. Nephretomes C. Splanchnopleura & Nephretomes
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), part of extraembryonal organ that consists of amnion, smooth chorion (chorion laeve) and covering decidua (decidua capsularis) appears. What is this organ? A: Fetal sack
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), part of extraembryonal organ consisting of different shape and size structures that are covered by syncytiotrophoblast, filled with mesenchyme and blood vessels appears. What is this organ? A: Placental villae
Under the light microscope - H-E staining part of extraembryonal organ that is covered by amnion and contains three blood vessels and mucoid tissue between them appears. What is this organ? A: Umbilical cord
MUSCLE TISSUE The triad of the striated myofibril consists of: 1) T system 2) 2L systems
What is the embryonic origin of: A) smooth muscle tissue B) skeletal striated muscle tissue C) cardiac striated muscle tissue D) myoepithelial cells A) mesenchyme B) mesoblast C) mesoblast d) ectoblast
The following proteins are present in the striated myofibrils: A) actin B) myosin C) troponin D) tropomyosin
The following types of muscle cells are innervated by the vegetative nervous system: 1) Smooth muscle tissue 2) Cardiac striated muscle tissue
For the smooth muscle tissue the _______a_______ type of microscopic organization is specific and the nuclei are localized in the _______b______ part of the cells a) cellular b) central
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), bundles of striated cylindrical structures with numerous peripherally placed nuclei are visible. What type of muscle tissue is this? A: Skeletal striated muscle tissue
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), long cells with centrally placed spherical nuclei, divided in two or more branches at its ends appear. Between the adjacent cells, dark lines pass in an irregular, step-like manner. What type of muscle tissue is this? A: Cardiac striated muscle tissue
Under the light microscope - (H-E staining), elongated (spindle-shaped) cells with centrally placed nuclei, arranged in layers are observed. What type of muscle tissue is this? A: Smooth muscle tissue
Associate each type of muscle tissue with its corresponding features: A. Smooth muscle tissue B. Cardiac striated muscle tissue C. Skeletal striated muscle tissue a. presence of striated myofibrils b. presence of smooth myofibrils c. presence of cardiac myofibrils d. cellular type of microscopic organization e. symplast type of organization e. syncytial type of organization A - b, d B - c, f C - a, e
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