BNA 1815 Flashcards

Jaclyn Miller
Flashcards by Jaclyn Miller, updated more than 1 year ago
Jaclyn Miller
Created by Jaclyn Miller about 6 years ago


Flashcards on BNA 1815 Flashcards, created by Jaclyn Miller on 09/26/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Who settled first in Canada? The French settled first
Why does Canada have two official languages? Because of the Quebec Act and because it was founded by two cultures, the French and the British
Where in Canada did the French first settle? Acadia (Nova Scotia), Newfoundland and Quebec
What attracted the French and British to North America? - cod fishing in Acadia and Newfoundland (catholic europe, meatless Fridays and holidays, cod was cheap) -FUr trade along the St Lawrence River - Timber -Rich resources
What was the rivalry between France and England over? Both countries wanted control over the abundant resources located in Acadia, Newfoundland and Quebec. Each wanted supremacy in North America
What is the significance of 1756? The beginning of the 7 years war
When France surrendered New France to Britain what were the concerns the French Canadiens had? -Worried about their way of life and that they would force them to speak English or change their religion -language, culture, religion -seigneruial system would stop, Brits had enclosure -deportation
Who were the leaders of the French and British forces in the capture of New France? Britain- General James Wolfe French- General Louis-Joseph Montcalm
Where was the battle for Quebec city fought? The Plains of Abraham
What happened in 1763 The Treaty of Paris concluded the war in NA between the French and the British. France could reclaim a colony lost in the war. They chose Martinique and Guadeloupe because they were sugar producing.
MAJOR CAUSE OF THE RIVALRY The desire of each nation to control the rich resources in NA. Sources of great wealth for the nation that controlled them
During the 1600s who all established colonies on the east coast of what is now the US? The Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Spanish
by 1700 what happened to these colonies Britain gained control of all the colonies except Florida. Their settlement is expanding but to the North, New France was under French control
What was a big advantage the British had over New France New France and Acadia had few colonists. Greatly outnumbered by British colonists to the south. British had a much more powerful navy
By mid- 1700s what had broken out Fighting over the resource-rich Ohio River Valley. French and British merchants were competing for Indian fur trade
What happened in 1749 The French gained control of the ORV and build forts to stop British advances
In the 7 years war when did it start and who did it involve? 1756 Affected Europe, India, and North America in the armed conflict
What were the two different strategies in the war? British: launched an all out offensive against the french in NA French: to seek a decisive victory in Europe
When did the British gain control of the ORV 1757
1758 Weakened by the naval blockade and prolonged siege the French fortress at Louisbourg fell to the British, led by General James Wolfe
1759 City of Quebec fell after a two month siege Plains of Abraham-over in 15 minutes Again General James Wolfe against Louis-Joseph Montcalm
In the Battle for Quebec City what as Montcalm's mistake He didn't have the resources or men for battle on the open plains. he rushed and didn't wait for reinforcements. They fired but were out of range
What completed the conquest of new france? The battle for Montreal in 1760. Montreal was surrounded by British soldiers
What ended the 7 year's war The Treaty of Paris 1763 -France reclaimed Martinique and Guadeloupe. Also kept St. Pierre and Miquelon -New France became part of the British Empire
Why was the loss of New France a blessing -colony had never become self-supported -didnt attract a large number of settlers French kings showed little interest in colony -it cost France more than it had returned in fish and furs -Voltaire "just a few acres of snow"
What did the Canadiens think? They were worried what would happen to their way of life
What did the British residents want? An elected assembly. However at this time in Britain Roman Catholics were not allowed to take part in politics, so they couldn't make an exception for this in NA. Roman Catholics were 2nd class citizens. Also this would give the small population of Brits control
1767- Britain was worried about what The increasing friction between the American colonies to the south and the mother country
Who was Sir Guy Carelton In 1770 British governor of Quebec was worried tension may lead to a revolt. - should this happen britain needed to have loyal subjects in quebec -he tried to persuade the Brit gov. to retain the distinctive way of life in Quebec if the colony was to stay under the British Empire - he claimed Canadiens would never be assimilates -results of his arguments- the Quebec Act
What was passed in 1774? The Quebec Act (an intolerable Act)
What were the main provisions of the Quebec Act? -gave canadiens unique status under the british empire - allowed them to retain language, religion, civil laws. Introducing British Criminal law - Enlarged territorial limits of the colony, lands that used to be native, ORV, now part of Quebec (this blocked expansion of American Colonies) Control over valuable fur trade now belongs to the merchants of Quebec and Montreal. Labrador is attached to Quebec giving the colony control over rich fishing and sealing grounds
What did the Quebec Act NOT DO? Gave no provision for an elected assembly. Continued to be ruled by a governor appointed by the British and a council of loyal leaders would assist the governor. The failure to create an elected Assembly angered the British population of the colony
What happened to the ORV after the American Revolution Britain gave up much of the ORV. This shrunk the size of Britain's empire in NA
United Empire Loyalists Loyal to Britain during the American Revolution
What were the fractions of groups during the rebellion in America? 1/3 - supported the rebels 1/3- neutral 1/3 loyal to Britain
How were the Loyalists treated by rebels? They were harassed during and after the war. As a result many fled from the American Colonies
How many loyalists left the US after the war? 100 000+ 60 000 went to Britain or the Caribbean
How were the loyalists rewarded for their loyalty? Food rations, a little money and free land
Where did the majority of the loyalists settle In the Maritimes. Founded St. John, got land grants on St. John's Island (now PEI)
What problems were the Brit. gov. presented with due to the increase in population? new colonies along the North Shore of the Bay of Fundy were used to having their own elected assemblies in the colony. They didn't want to be governed from distant and hard to reach Halifax
What did Britain do in 1784 created a new colony of New Brunswick with its own elected Assembly
what happened in 1791 Britain split the Quebec colony in the Constitutional Act of 1791
How did they split it - the western portion newly settled by the Loyalists became the colony of Upper Canada (souther portion of what is now the province of Ontario) -the area east of the Ottawa river, long settled by the Canadiens became the colony of lower Canada
what else did the Constitutional Act create for both upper and lower canada? elected Assemblies.
Why did these elected assemblies have such limited power? Britain's leaders felt that the legislatures in the 13 colonies had been too strong. TO prevent the same situation arising in the Canads, the constitutional act gave the colonial governors (apt. Britain) a great deal more power than the elected Assemblies had
What were some characteristics of the elected Assembly created by the constitutional act? -Just before 1791, the governor would choose the members of his executive council. They would help him run the colony -Members of the Elected Assembly would vote on matters of taxation but most other laws were made by governors and their executive council. Any laws made by Assembly could be turned down by governor -THe brit. gov. could overturn any laws passed by a colonial elected Assembly within the first 2 years of passage
What was also included in the constitutional act? Roman Catholic religion and traditional civil laws, protected under the Quebec act were also a part of this constitution
What was the new framework? It was intended to prevent rebellion and bring stability BNA
Why did the British government introduce the Quebec Act? To prevent a revolt and because they thought Canadiens could not assimilate.
Provisions in the Quebec Act -allowed canadiens to maintain their language, religion and civil laws -introduced English Criminal Law -Expansion into the ORV+ Labrador -seigneurial system
What was the British populations reaction to the Quebec act Angry because it failed to create an elected Assembly However, the English merchants were pleased with expansion and saw potential wealth in Labrador and the ORV
What impact did the Loyalists have on BNA Made the population in Quebec and the Maritime boom -founded city of St. Johns -influenced the creation of New Brunswick -influenced the Constitutional Act
What were some struggle faced by those sailing to BNA? -Smell on board the ships could be smelled from one km away -some captains refused to allow steerage passengers to come on deck during the entire voyage which was from 20 days to 3 months -Fever and cholera caused death especially in children -Motion sickness -food was rationed and in short supply. also the food was dull like flour, oatmeal, rice or sugar -no bathrooms -had to clean and whitewash between decks -the weather was at times very unpleasant. a rough sea
What were some struggles of those settling in BNA? -slept in government sheds in these sheds many died because of contamination and the spread of disease -mosquitoes were a problem on moist, warm spring days. Woke up to large, red inflamed bumps. On children faces -When supply ship did not make it because of an accident or weather supplies were entirely cut off and colony suffered -fire was hard to obtain -some middle class farmers came to find their land was all swamp -winter danger -attack of starving dogs -getting lost in the dense woods -New families did not know where to look for work, assistance or information -Settlers for many years had to plant crops amid tree stumps
What did the constitutional act ensure and why? Preserved UC's and LC' different cultural traditions in order to ensure their loyalty to Britain
What was the first phase of immigration? From the US "late loyalists" during the period of 1791-1812. Some where true loyalists who had waited to see if they would receive compensation for their losses during the American Revolution. Others were opportunists, drawn north by cheap land and good location
What did the late loyalists do? They increased Upper Canada's pop. from 14 000 in 1791 to 90 000 by 1812. Another 10 000 late loyalists settled in Lower Canada
What was the second wave of immigration Between the years 1815-1850 came from the British Isles. Thousands of Irish, Scots, and English found themselves displaced by the changes resulting from the Industrial Revolution so they set out for the new world. (aka) the Great Migration
What were some characteristic about the Great Migration? -immigrants who came to Canada were very poor but could get cheap transport to canada -passage to Montreal or Quebec by sailing ship in the 1820s was 7 pounds (about 2 months wage) meals included. Children travelled half fare -Immigrants faced extreme hardship on and off the ship -sickness such as cholera was common, tens of thousands died on their way to NA -Medical exams had to be performed before they left
In the Constitutional act, when the BNA colonies were split, how were they split? Upper and Lower Canada (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, PEI, Newfoundland)
What was the constitutional act introduced as a response to? The loyalists demands for an elected assembly and a separate colony.
What were the Major Provisions of the Constitutional act? -Quebec divided into colonies of upper and lower canada. Ottawa river was boundary -Lower Canada- seigneurial system. French civil law. Roman Catholic _upper Canada. English protestant -land set aside for the Church of England 1/2 of all land in both UC and LC -Government structure-not democracy, people don't have power-responsible to great britain
How and why did the Brit. gov. limit the power of the legislative assembly: -the brits felt the legislative assemblies in the 13 colonies had been too strong -Constitutional act= governors (appointed by Brits) more power than elected Assemblies -law passed by assembly could be turned down by governor -the brit. gov. could overturn any law passed by colonial elected assembly within 2 years of passage -prevent rebellion and brit stability to BNA. Governor made most laws
Who was John graves Simcoe? The new governor, who was anxious to increase the population, advertised the availability of excellent farm land to potential immigrants in the US
In the American Revolution if the Late Loyalists play a part? No.
How many people were involved in the Great Migration from the British Isles to the Canadas? When were the dates? 800 000 1815-1850
What were the five groups of people in the Great Migration? 1. unemployed veterans of Britains war with napoleon were offered free land 2. landless Scottish crofters (tenant farmers)-replaced by sheep to sell wool to textile industry 3. Irish peasants- fleeing from disease and starvation in the wake of the infamous potatoe famine 4. unemployed factory workers from the slums of industrial England- escaping the Industrial revolution 5. Merchants and businessmen who hope to become wealthy land owners in the new colony
Who were poor immigrants subsidized by? The british government or by charities
What did the government see immigration as? A way to rid England of its poor and at the same time ensure the "britishness" of the colony (criminals deported to Australia, poor people to the colonies will remain loyal to the British crown)
How many immigrants left the british Isles in 1847 for the crossing? 100 000
How many made it over? 17 000 died during the crossing 20 000 died shortly after arrival 25 000 hospitalized after voyage
Who were among the immigrants? Other than those from the British Isles Escaped American slaves who were fleeing north to Canada through the underground railway. Canada= place of safety
What changes were taking place? Woodlands gave way to farmlands, villages became towns, towns small cities. By 1856 most of the good arable land (farm land) in the Canada's had been claimed.
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