Separate but equal

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Separate but equal

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14th Amendment One of the Civil War amendments; defined US citizenship and guarantees "equal protection under the laws"
De jure segregation Segregation established by law. For example Jim Crow & the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson
De facto segregation Latin phrase that means "by fact". Segregation that occurred NOT by law but as a result of tradition. Ex. In 1900's blacks and whites attended separate churches
Jim Crow laws Segregation laws in the South
Original Jurisdiction Authority of a court to hear a case for the FIRST time
Appellate Jurisdiction The authority of a court to hear a case APPEALED from a lower court
Legal Brief A written document explaining the position of one side or the other in a case
Majority opinion A statement that presents the views of the majority of the Supreme Court justices regarding a case
Dissenting opinion A statement written by a Supreme Court justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her own opinion
State Decisis Principle followed by judges and the Supreme Court: a Latin term that means "Let yesterday's decision stand"
Precedent A ruling that is used as the basis for a judicial decision in a later, similar case. Ex. The case Plessy v. Ferguson established the precedent of "separate but equal"
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) case of a slave named Dred Scott. The Supreme Court ruled that enslaved African Americans were property, not citizens, and had no rights under the Constitution
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) case about Homer Plessy, a black man, who purchased a ticket to ride in the whites only railroad car in Louisiana. Case established "Separate but equal" doctrine
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas (1954) banned segregation in public schools
Briggs v. Elliot (1954) case that challenged segregated schools in Clarendon County, South Carolina
Korematsu v. United States (1944) During WWII Japanese American citizens living on the West Coast were moved to internment camps. Supreme Court upheld the President's authority to do this. This case is an example of the President's power to issue an executive order, checks and balances, and judicial review
University of California v. Bakke (1978) Supreme Court case on affirmative action. It bars use of racial quota systems in college admissions but also affirmative action programs are constitutional.
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