As level PE Physiology

Josh Toplis
Flashcards by Josh Toplis, updated more than 1 year ago
Josh Toplis
Created by Josh Toplis over 5 years ago
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P.E AS Flashcards on As level PE Physiology , created by Josh Toplis on 10/19/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the health related fitness components of fitness? Stamina muscular endurance Strength Speed Power Flexibility
Definition of stamina? to delay the onset of fatigue
What are the skill related components? reaction time agility co-ordination balance
What can affect your energy intake and energy output? Genes, amount of muscle, training level and your event
How do you work out BMI? Weigth in KG divided by height in metres squared
Explain the mechanics of breathing in Air is taken in and your external intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract to lower the partial pressure of the lung which increase in volume to allow more oxygen to be taken in
Explain the mechanics of breathing out As you are trying to rid the waste product of respiration, carbon dioxide your internal intercostal muscles contract and the partial pressure of your lungs increase to force the carbon dioxide out of the lungs
Tidal volume? considered your normal breathing rate, amount of air moving in and out
exspiratory reserve volume? the amount of air that could be used when breathing out
inspiratory reserve volume? amount of air that could be used when breathing in
vital capacity? maximum amount of air breathed in and out
Residual reserve volume? amount of air left in the lungs after breathing out
4 features of the alveoli covered in capillaries moist lining-allowing for quicker gaseous exchange tin membrane-decreases diffusion pathway capillaries one cell thick
example
What is a baroreceptor? measures the pressure of heat
chemoreceptor? detects change in PH/acid
proprioceptors? detects movement
Hemoglobin? when it forms with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin can carry 4 oxygen's at a time determined by the partial pressure of oxygen
myoglobin? has a higher affinity of oxygen only found in the skeletal muscles
carbon dioxide in the blood? 5% dissolves in plasma 20% combines with haemoglobin 75%combines with water forming bicarbonate ions what makes the blood acidic
oxygen in the blood? oxygen enters the red blood cells combines with heamoglobin forms oxyhaemoglobin
saturation of haemoglobin? when lots of oxygen is available, all haemoglobin carries 4 oxygen molecules so is fully saturated when there is not much oxygen around oxyhaemoglobin splits, releasing oxygen into the working muscles
a temperature increase leads to a stepper concentration gradient meaning more diffusion has happened
During exercise? temperature increases leading to more CO2 being produced both of these increase the amount of oxygen released into the muscles
Working muscles? higher temperature and more co2 meaning more oxygen leaves the haemoglobin
structure of the heart
What is systole pressure? it is when the ventricles contract
What is diastole pressure? when the ventricles relax
Why is the left side of the heart bigger than the right? because it has stronger thicker walls to get blood pumped around the body
What do all veins have present in them? valves
What do valves do? they prevent backflow and maintains high pressure in the veins
What does myogenic mean? generates its on beat
Key term to look out for: myo: means anything to do with muscle
What is the conductivity sequence of the heart? sino atrial node(san) artial ventricular node bundle of HIS purkinje fibres
The SAN......? sets the heart rate at about 120 beats per minute
what does the nerves do? it acts as the brake and accelerator
The role of the sympathetic nerve? helps to speed up your heart rate
The vagus nerve? slows down your heart rate
Causes of change in heart rate? exercise=more co2 in the blood increased acidity detected by chemoreceptors impulses are then sent to the medulla
The components of the circulatory system? Arteries- thick muscular walls, takes blood away from the heart, high elastic pressure Arterioles Capillary- tiny very thin walls of diffusion of substances in and out Venules Veins- thin walled, carry blood back into the heart, wide lumen to maintain velocity of blood
When blood is further away from the heart the pressure is? lower
What happens to the velocity once past the capillaries? decreases
Explain how the venous return mechanism works? It works by the skeletal pump, blood is maintained by the pocket of valves in the veins, also with the contraction of your leg muscles compresses veins, respiratory pump
An increased ejection fraction means? An increase in stroke volume
What does the release of adrenaline do to the force of contraction? increases the force of contraction
When resting your ventricles do not? fully empty during contraction
When does the cardiovascular drift change? Changes to cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate during a period of steady state exercise
During steady state exercise? Lasting for 60 minutes Cardiac output stays constant stroke volume decreases heart rate increases
blood pressure and velocity graph
With the redistribution of blood; what happens during exercise? 1) vasodilation to exercising muscles 2) vasodilation to the heart 3) vasodilation to skin arterioles
Why? 1)more blood more oxygen 2)more blood oxygen 3)more blood- cooling
vasconstriction at the? Kidneys, liver, guts- reduced importance To inactive muscles- reduced importance No change in supply to the brain
Explain how redistribution of blood occurs during exercise? When doing exercise you're respiring as your muscles need oxygen and to get rid of carbon dioxide, vasodilation in your blood vessels increase the amount of blood to your muscles which need oxygen and glucose. Vasoconstriction to the active muscles the lumen will narrow and decrease the amount of blood flow, carbon dioxide will increase
Why a performers stroke volume decreases during a run of constant pace and workload? During exercise loss of fluid at sweat reduced venous return stroke volume decreases starling law of the heart cardiovascular drift
Explain how it is possible for a trained and untrained individual to have the same cardiac output for a given workload? They have the same physique untrained heart rate and low stroke volume Trained low heart rate large stroke volume
Effects of exercise on the cv and respiratory systems? Heart gets bigger-hypertrophy or athletes heart Hence more muscle- more powerful contraction increased resting heart rate and stroke volume increases Same cardiac output more blood-haemoglobin and better oxygen transport so improved stamina more capillaries to muscles/ lungs higher Vo2 difference more efficient gas exchange
In a flow diagram? Bigger heart stronger contraction larger ejection fraction increased stroke volume same cardiac output increased maximum cardiac output and decreased resting heart rate
Explain the terms bradycardia and athletes heart? Bradycardia- reduction in resting heart rate Athlete heart- increased chamber size/ hypertrophy
What physiological factors are responsible for these conditions? Increase stroke volume cardiac output maintained with fewer beats More cardiac muscle increased mitochondria more capillaries improved stronger contraction decreased firing of SAN Increased vagus stimulation
example of the different muscle groups
What is adduction? Movement towards the body
What is abduction? Movement away from the body
Flexion? E.g. a bicep curl so getting smaller
Extension? Getting bigger
Name the type of joint, joint action and main agonist when throwing at the elbow and at the shoulder? Elbow: type of joint-hinge Joint action- extension main agonist triceps brachii shoulder: Type of joint- ball and socket joint action- horizontal flexion
Skeleton example
What is the articulating bones, movement possible and a common sporting example at the knee? Bones: Tibia and femur Movement possible: Extension and flexion Example: Kicking a ball and leg extension
At the hip? Bones: Pelvis and femur Movement possible: extension, flexion, abduction and adduction Example:Kicking a ball
Wrist? Bones: Carpuls, ulna and radius Movement possible: flexion, extension pronation and spination example: dart throw or javelin throw
At the elbow? Bones: Humerous and radius movement possible: flexion and extension example: javelin throw, bicep curl
At shoulder? Bones: scapule, humerous and clavicle movement possible: rotation, abduction, adduction. horizontal flexion, extension example:butterfly crawl
Ankle? Bones: Fibula. tibia and tarsals movement possible: plantar flexion and dorsi flexion example: kicking a ball or ballet
Exceptions to the rule: Squat in the downwards phase? Type of contraction eccentric muscle lengthens agonist controlling decent hip flexion gluteals knee flexion quadriceps ankle dorsi flexion and gastronemius
At the press up lowering yourself down? joint action flexion muscle action eccentric agonist- triceps brachii
Bicep curl downwards phase? Joint action- extension muscle contraction-eccentric agonist- bicep brachii
What is an concentric (isotonic) contraction? Where it is shortening as the insertion move towards the origin so the joint angle decreases e.g. bicep curl
Eccentric contraction? Where it is lengthening acting as a break the insertion moves away from the origin so an increase in joint angle
A static contraction? Where there is no movement
Something to remember about axis and planes? that you move through a plane and rotate round an axis
Name the planes and axis you rotate and break in a tennis serve? you break the horizontal and sagital plane and twisting on the vertical plane
A cartwheel? the sagital horizontal axis
Example
What are the 3 components? Fulcrum load Effort
Something to remember the order is? FLE think 1 2 3
What class is this? 1st class and is anything to do with throwing
2nd class e.g. running so involves plantar flexion
3rd class and concerns all other joints
Mechanical advantage and disadvantage of 3rd class? long resistance arm and short effort arm good range/ speed of movement weak force applied
Mechanical advantage and disadvantage of 2nd class? short resistance arm and longer effort arm good force applied weal range of movement
Physiological benefits of a warm up? Improves oxygen delivery to muscles due to increased heart rate and vasodilation of blood vessels Increase venous return and therefore stroke volume Increased temperature reduces viscosity of the blood improving blood flow Increased muscle muscle temp means greater elasticity of muscle fibres leading to a greater force of contraction Increased temp helps to facilitate enzyme activity Increased speed of nerve impulsion's Can reduce the delayed onset of muscle soreness(DOMS)
Of a cool down? Maintains cardio respiratory functioning which helps to speed up recovery processes Keeps blood vessels dilated to bring oxygen in to remove lactic acid Helps to minimise DOMS
Psychological benefits of a warm up and cool down? Helps to mentally prepare the performer Allow a chance for feedback to occur
What is an active stretch? Involves the performer undertaking a stretch with no external assistance
Passive stretch? Involves the assistance of a partner or equipment e.g. towel or rubber band
Static stretching? Involves the lengthening of a muscle which is held for a short period of time (15-20 seconds)
Ballistic stretching? Involves bouncing in and out of a stretched position, uses the momentum of the body to force the muscle beyond
Dynamic stretching? Involves taking the muscle through a full range of motion in a gradual and controlled way
What is safe practice? Ensure the body and muscles are fully warmed up before attempting to perform any stretch Always use static stretching before dynamic Ballistic should only be performed under direct supervision
What is specificity? All training must be relevant to the activity or sport
Progression? As the body become better at coping with training greater demands are required to ensure improvement continues
Overload? The performer must find the training taxing, so it must be pitched at higher levels/ intensity
Reversibility? If the training load decreases or stops all together the benefits prior training can be lost
Tedium? Training sessions should use a range of different methods and intensity to help reduce boredom
What can in be remembered as? SPORT
What is the FITT principle? Frequency-how often we train Intensity-how hard we train Time- How long we train Type-What type of training we use
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