Language Ed1 Exam

yasmin.edgerley
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yasmin.edgerley
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Language Education 1, Canberra University, Semester 2

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Question Answer
Components of Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics and Graphaphonics
Components of Literacy Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking (and Viewing)
Cueing Systems Graphophanics, Semantic, Syntactic, Pragmatics
Graphaphonics The sounds and graphics of the language
Syntactic Grammar of Language
Semantic The meaning associated with the words
Pragmatics Purpose and functions
Freebody and Luke (1990) Reader Roles Code-breaker, text user, text analyst and text participant
Code-breaker Works out the sound-symbol relationship of the text and uses the syntactic patterns of the language
Text Participant Works out the meaning of the text
Text User Decides the purpose and personal uses of the text type being read
Text Analyst Critically evaluates the who, what, why of the text
Principles Of an Effect Teacher 1. Understand How Students Learn 2.Support student use of the cueing systems 3.Create a community of learners 4. Adopt a balanced approach to instruction 5. Scaffold student reading, writing, viewing, speaking and listening 6.Organise for language, literature and literacy instruction 7. Link instruction and assessment 8. Become partners with parents
Behaviorism Places program content and policy demand at the center of teach-learner relationship. Focuses on observable changes in behavior. Views the teacher role as providing information and supervising practices. Describes learning as the result of stimulus-and-response actions. Uses incentives and rewards for motivation.
Constructivism Describes learning as the active construction of knowledge. Recognises the importance of background knowledge. Views learner as innately curious. Advocates collaboration not competition Suggests ways to engage students so they can be successful
Sociolinguistics •Emphasises the importance of language and social interaction on learning •Views reading and writing as social and cultural activities •Explains that students learn best through authentic activities •Describes the teacher’s role as scaffolding students learning •Advocates culturally responsive teaching •Challenges students to confront injustices and inequities in society
Cognitive/Information Processing •Compares the mind to a computer •Recommends integrating reading and writing • Views reading and writing as meaning making processes •Explains that readers’ interpretations are individualised •Describes students as strategic readers and writers
Phonological System Terms •Phoneme (smallest unit of sound) •Grapheme (written representation of a phoneme using one or more letters) •Phonological awareness (knowledge about the sound structure of words at the phoneme, onset-rime and symbol levels) •Phonemic awareness (the ability to orally manipulate phonemes in words) •Phonics (instruction about phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules)
Phonological Applications •Pronouncing words •Detecting regional and other dialects •Decoding words when reading •Using invented spelling •Reading and writing: alliteration and onomatopoeia •Noticing rhyming words •Dividing words into syllables
Syntactic System (Terms) •Syntax (the structure of the patterns in a sentence and the order of words in English phrases, clauses, groups and sentences) •Morpheme (the smallest meaningful unit of language e.g. Car) •Free morpheme (a morpheme that can stand alone as a word; e.g. run, bind) •Bound morpheme (a morpheme that must be attached to a free morpheme; e.g. ‘ing’ in running and binding)
Syntactic System (Applications) •Adding inflectional endings to words •Combining words to form compound words •Using capitalisation and punctuation to indicate beginnings and ends of sentences •Writing simple, compound and complex sentences •Combining sentences
Semantic System (Terms) •Semantics (meaning) •Synonyms (words that mean the same or similar) •Antonyms (Opposites e.g. good, bad) •Homonyms (words that sound alike but are spelled differently; e.g. pear, pare, pair)
Semantic System (Applications) • Learning the meanings of words •Discovering that many words have multiple meanings •Using context clues to figure out an unfamiliar word •Studying synonyms, antonyms and homonyms •Using a dictionary and thesaurus
Pragmatic Systems (Terms) •Functions(the purpose for which a person uses language) •Standard English (the form of English used in textbooks, newspapers etc.) •Non-standard English (other forms and dialects; regional, social and historical dialects of English)
Pragmatic Systems (Applications) •Varying language to fit specific purposes •Reading and writing dialogue in dialects •Comparing standard and non-standard English
Paralinguistic System Factors outside the actual language that contributes to the meaning of the text
Paralinguistic System (Terms) • Punctuation, font, layout, illustrations, captions, bullets, textual contrasts
Pragmatic System The system of English that varies language according to social and cultural uses
Semantic System The meaning system of English that focuses on vocabulary
Syntactic System The structural system of English that governs how words are combined into sentences
Phoneme Smallest unit of sound
Grapheme Written representation of a phoneme
Phonological awareness knowledge about the sound structure of words
phonemic awareness orally manipulating phonemes into words
Phonics instruction about phoneme-grapheme correspondences
Syntax structure of patterns in a sentence and order of words (clauses, phrases, groups)
morpheme smallest meaningful unit of language (e.g. car)
free morpheme a base word
Bound Morpheme base words with inflections (bind-ing, round-ed)
Semantics Meaning
Synonyms words that mean the same or alike
Antonym Opposite words; good and bad
Homonyms words that sound the same but spelt differently
Functions the purpose for which a person uses language
Standard English Formal English
Non Standard English dialects and other forms
Characteristics of a Classroom Community •Responsibility •Opportunities •Engagement •Demonstration •Risk taking •Instruction •Response •Choice •Time •Assessment
Components of a Balanced Literacy Approach Reading Phonics (and other literacy skills) Reading and Writing Strategies Vocabulary Comprehension Literature Content-area study Oral Language Writing Spelling
Five Levels of Support Modelled Shared Interactve Guided Independent
Strands of English Curriculum Language Literature Literacy
Language Strand The emphasis is on how the language works when we compose and comprehend particular types of texts. A study of grammar, spelling and punctuation features prominently in this strand
Literature Strand Students appreciate, analyse and compose a range of literary texts in both print and multimodal formats. Texts include contemporary and traditional examples of world literature, Australian and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander literature and texts from the Asia-Pacific region
Literacy Strand Students develop a growing sophistication in analysing, composing and comprehending a range of texts appropriate to the school, local, national and world communities. These texts necessarily include print, digital, visual and multimodal texts.
Purpose of Classroom Assessment To determine student reading levels To monitor student progress To diagnose student strengths and weaknesses To document student learning
Types of Readers Developing Readers Dormant Readers Underground Readers
Developing Readers Students not reading at grade level Difficulty understanding the reading material in every aspect Due to standardized low test scores etc. they do not set themselves capable resulting in despair Richard Dillington explains in ‘What Really Matters for Struggling Readers’ oSpecial education etc. programs read 75% less than students in regular classes No matter how much instruction a child is given if they do not apply to their real reading experiences there will be no improvement
Dormant Readers The readers who read to pass their classes and do well in state tests but do not embrace reading All dormant readers have a reader inside
Underground Readers Gifted readers They see the school readings as disconnected from their own preferred reading choices Teachers seldom design instruction around these student’s needs
Camborne's Conditions for Learning Immersion Demonstration Expectations Responsibility Employment Approximations Response Engagement
Immersion Students need to be immersed in a rich reading environment
Demonstration Abundance of demonstrations are needed to show structure and features of text, how to use texts for different learning goals etc
Expectations  Students will rise to the level set by the teacher
Responsibility Learners who lose the ability to make choices become disempowered (Camborne) Give some choices to the students
Employment Time to practice what they learn in the context of realistic situations
Approximations  Encouraged for the skills and knowledge already present and allow room for mistakes
Response  Non-threatening, immediate feedback on student’s progress
Engagement Reading must be an endeavour oPersonal value oStudents see themselves as capable oIs free from anxiety oIs modelled by someone they like, respect, trust and want to emulate
Reading Process 1. Prereading 2. Reading 3. Responding 4. Exploring 5. Applying
Writing Process 1. Pre-writing 2. Drafting 3. Revising 4. Editing 5. Publishing
What is a miscue? An unexpected response during oral reading Miscues are not mistakes
Types of Miscues Reversals Split Syllables
School System Requirements and Provision for Students Accountability- teachers must demonstrate their ability to implement and evaluate their programs Official Tests - NAPLAN; comparing achievements of students' against each other
Methods of Assessing and Monitoring Written Language Observations Anecdotal Notes Checklists Rating Scales Conferences
Reading Levels Independent - fluency and comprehension evident Instructional-o Recognise most words, almost all fluent, comprehension is evident but understanding is limited when reading independently Frustration - o Do not recognise enough words automatically, choppy and word by word, lack sense and show little understanding
Comprehension Levels of Thinking Literal Inferential Evaluative Applied
What is Comprehension? Different levels of thinking; literal, inferential and critical
5 Ways to Maintain Balance in Literacy Program 1. Teach skills as a way to gain meaning 2. Each day, include time for both guided instruction and independent work 3. Avoid teaching children as if they are empty receptacles for knowledge 4. Integrate print and electronic materials effectively 5. Always consider standardised test scores in light of informal assessment data
Stages When Children Learn to Read and Write 1. Emergent 2. Beginning 3. Fluent
Developing a Unit (Literacy Focus Units) 1. Select the literature 2. Set Outcomes 3. Develop a Unit plan 4. Coordinate grouping patterns with activities 5. Create a time schedule 6. Assessing Students
Characteristics of Reading & Writing Workshops Time Choice Response
Five Components of Reading Workshop Reading Responding Sharing Minilessons Reading aloud to students
3 Components of Writing Workshop Writing Sharing Minilessons
Phonemic Awareness • It is the ability to identify the individual sounds in words (phonemes). It is an understanding of the smallest units that make up speech
Phonics A tool needed by all readers and writers
Vocabulary •Refers to the set of words known or understood by a learner •Contributes to comprehension, fluency, reading achievement and effective communication with others
Fluency o Struggling readers need to hear themselves as fluent readers to build confidence
Comprehension •The core of the Reading process •Without comprehension, has reading really taken place?
Stages of Spelling Development 1. Emergent 2. Letter Name-alphabetic 3. Within Word Pattern 4. Syllables and Affixes 5. Derivational Relations
Nature of English 1: Syntactic Patterns • Structures and patterns of words that carry a message (clauses, groups, phrases)
Nature of English 2: Words and their purposes Closed class words (prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, determiners) Open-class words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)
Nature of English 3: Elements of a Curriculum for Teaching English English language itself (sounds, words, syntactic patterns etc.) Literature (narratives, reports etc.) Literacy
Cohesion The systems of organisation that are used within texts to link the ideas or concepts together: within sentences, between sentences and from paragraph to paragraph
Fluency Components • Accuracy (recognising familiar words automatically) • Reading speed • Prosody (the ability to orally read sentences with expression)
Teaching Fluency 1. Model fluent reading 2. Support students while reading aloud 3. Provide opportunities for students to engage with variety of reading experiences
Tiers of Vocabulary 1. High frequency words 2. Less common labels for common concepts 3. Less common words specific to particular content domains
What is Fluency? The ability to read efficiently and the bridge to comprehension
Levels of Word Knowledge Unknown word Initial recognition Partial word knowledge Full word knowledge
Michael Graves (2006) 3 Word Learning Strategies o Using context clues o Analysing word parts o Checking a dictionary
Characteristics of Differentiated Instruction Rigorous (challenging instruction encouraging engagement in learning) Relevant (address literacy standards to ensure that students learn essential knowledge, strategies and skills) Flexible(variety of instructional procedures and grouping techniques to support students) Complex (engage students in thinking deeply about books they read, compositions they write and they learn)
3 Ways in Which Teachers Modify Instruction Content (what) Process (how) Product (end result)
Switching on Readers - Choice • Don’t restrict choice • You are there to support, not rescue • Use strategies to support all readers to access all texts
Switching on Readers - Freedom • There are no rules when it comes to reading books • There are no book police • The last word from Daniel Penac: 'Don’t make fun of people who don’t read, or they never will
Switching on Readers - Demonstration • Read • Read widely, visibly and often in your classroom • Share your favourite books and favourite parts of books • Model fluent reading • Demonstrate reading strategies
Switching on Readers - Love • Build solid relationships with the children in your class • Celebrate all reading efforts and success • Read one on one with all members of your class at least once a week • Talk about books frequently
Technology Being Used for Education E-book readers Ipads Computers Ipods Cameras Mobile Phones
Koplan and Bork (2007) Claim that technology must be part of any effective literacy program
Kress (2003) Rapid pace of technology and the transformation in digital technologies continually forces teachers to rethink what literacy means
Hancock (2008) The use of technology evokes and provides new opportunities and possibilities for engagement, personal interpretation and new experiences
Technology and Authentic Reading Literacy is best learned when it secures real purposes and is linked to the interests and future aspirations of students
UCR (U-Can Read) Literacy Program • Adopts strategies that are collaborative, dialogue and responsive to the lives and needs of learners • A parent education program • Aimed at developing students literacy skills
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