Plant Kingdom Test 6

Flashcards by wybillo, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by wybillo over 7 years ago


covers; mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms

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Question Answer
characteristics of all seedless plants 1. most are non-vascular 2. low growing 3. small in size 4. they like places high in moister
What are the two main characteristics of a seed plant? 1. they reproduce with pollen and seeds 2. they have vascular tissue
Where do mosses grow? 1. tree trunks or wet rocks
Where do liverwarts grow? 1. moist rocks or moist soil
Where do hornwarts grow? 1. under shade trees near the river or moist soil
What are plants that have vascular tissue called? 1. vascular plants
How do seedless vascular plants reproduce? 1. they reproduce with spores or sexual reproduction
What are the structures called that anchor a moss and absorb water and nutrients from the soil? 1. rhizoids
What is a frond? 1. the leaf of a fern
What does vascular tissue do for plants? 1. transports water, food, and minerals through out the plants
What is the vascular tissue through which food moves? 1. phloem
What are the vascular tissues called that transport water and minerals? 1. xylem
Describe how the materials reach the stem and leaves? 1. the materials enter the root's xylem and move up into the stems and leaves.
What are tiny structures that contain the cells that later become sperm cells called? 1. pollen
What are cotyledons? 1. the one or two seed leaves of the embryo
What is the outer covering of the seed called? 1. the seed coat
Where does pollen deliver the sperm cells? 1. directly near the eggs
What is the significance of having the sperm cells near the eggs? 1. no water is needed for fertilization to occur
What are the structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering called? 1. seeds
What is inside a seed? 1. a partially developed plant
If a seed lands in an area where conditions are favorable, what happens? 1. it sprouts out of the seed and begins to grow
What is a zygote? 1. a fertilized egg
What are the 3 main parts of a seed? 1. embryo 2. stored food 3. seed coat
What happens when a seed comes out of inactivity? 1. it germinates and the embryo begins to grow again and pushes out the seed
Is a seed always active? 1. no, it can remain inactive for a while
What are the three key functions of roots? 1. anchor the plant into the ground 2. absorb water and minerals from the soil 3. sometimes store food
Where is the root cap and what does it do? 1. it covers the tip of the root and protects the root from injury from rocks and the root grows through the soil
What are the two functions of the stem? 1. support for the plant and holds up the leaves so they are exposed to the sun 2. carries substances between the plant's roots and leaves
What are the two types of stems? 1. herbaceous 2. woody
In woody stems what is the layer of cells called that divides to produce new phloem and xylem? 1. cambium
What is the process called where leaves capture the sun's energy and carry out the food making process? 1. photosynthesis
Where are stomata located and what are their functions and what do they control? 1. they are located on the surfaces of leaves 2. they open and close to control when gases enter and leave the leaf
What is the process by which water evaporates from the stomata in a plant's leaves called? 1. transpiration
Why are the seeds of gymnosperms called 'naked?' 1. because they are not enclosed in the fruit
Name two unique characteristics of angiosperms 1. they have flowers 2. there fruits enclose the seeds
What do the male cones and the male parts of a flower produce? 1. pollen
What do female cones and the female parts of a flower produce? 1. egg, oveol, and the seed
Briefly describe the process of embryo formation in an angiosperm? 1. the pollen gets the sperm cells near the eggs and when the conditions are favorable fertilization takes place and the zygote is formed the seeds contain a young plant inside a protective covering once the fertilization happens the embryo grows in the seed
What is the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm called? 1. cone
What is the process of transferring of pollen from a male reproductive structure to a female reproductive structure? 1. pollinization
In angiosperms what is the ripened ovary called? 1. fruit
Angiosperms that produce seeds with two seed leaves are called? 1. dicots
What are the 3 groups of seedless vascular plants? 1. club mosses 2. ferns 3. horsetails
What are 3 main groups of non-vascular plants? 1. mosses 2. liverwarts 3. hornwarts
Since non-vascular plants live in moist, watery surroundings, what can their sperm cells do during reproduction? they can swim to the egg cells
What are the structures that look like tiny leaves growing off the small stem that are the fuzzy green part of the moss called? 1. the gametophyte
Describe what generates out of the gametophyte 1. the sporophyte and it includes a long slender stalk with a capsule at the end
What does the capsule at the end of the sporophyte contain? 1. spores
Describe what liverwarts look like growing on moist rocks they look like a thick crust on a rock
Are hornwarts sporophytes? 1. yes
What do hornwarts structures look like and they usually live in moist soil mixed with what? 1. they grow horn like structures and are often mixed with grass plants
True or False/ Seedless, vascular plants have true stems, roots, and leaves 1. true
Why can vascular plants grow quite tall? Give two reasons 1. they have very effective transportation systems through out the plant 2. vascular tissue gives the plant strength and stability
In seedless vascular plants spores grow into gametophytes that produce egg cells and sperm cells. Why must there be water avalable to them? 1. so that the sperm can swim towards the eggs
True or False/ Most ferns have above ground stems 1. false
True or False/ In most ferns the leaves grow upward from the top of the stems, while roots grow downward from the bottom of the stems 1. true
The leaves of ferns are called fronds. How does their upper surface help the plant retain water? 1. the upper surface of each fron is coated with a cuticle
When you see a fern with its visible fronds what stage is the plant in? 1. its in the sporophyte stage
How and where do the spores develop on the fronds of the ferns and what do the spores develop into? 1. the spores are formed in tiny spore cases on the underside of the mature fronds the spores then develop into tiny gametophytes that grow low to the ground
There are two other groups of seedless vascular plants they are horsetails and club mosses. Why don't we study them more? 1. because relatively few species of them are alive today
What are the 6 main groups of the plant kingdom? 1. mosses 2. ferns 3. liverwarts 4. hornwarts 5. gymnosperms 6. angiosperms
Which of the 6 main plant groups have vascular tissue? 1. Gymnosperms 2. Angiosperms 3. Ferns
Which of the 6 main groups reproduces with seeds? 1. Gymnosperms 2. Angiosperms
Which plant group produces without pollinators? 1. gymnosperms
Which of the 6 main plant groups reproduces with pollen and pollinators? 1. angiosperms
In which main plant group do the seeds reside in cones? 1. gymnosperms
In which main plant group do seeds reside in flowers? 1. angiosperms
How are moss spores distributed? 1. by the wind
How are gymnosperms seeds distributed? 1. wind
What are the two main sub groups of angiosperms? 1. monocots and dicots
What is the leaf venation in monocots? 1. parallel
What is the leaf venation in dicots? 1. netted
What is the function of the leaf venation in dicots? 1. so they wont tear in either direction
What is the stem vascular tissue arrangement in monocots? 1. scattered
What is the stem vascular tissue arrangement in dicots? 1. ring
What is the root system description for monocots? 1. fiberous
What is the root system description for dicots? 1. tap
What is the flower structure for monocots? 3's
What is the flower structure for dicots? 4's and 5's
True or False/ Some seeds need to be chilled or past through an organism's digestive system to germinate. 1. true
True or False/ Most seeds need water to germinate. 1. true
Which main plant groups have a dominate plant form of gametophyte? 1. mosses
In which main plant groups is the dominate plant form sporophyte? 1. ferns 2. gymnosperms 3. angiosperms
True or False/ Moss reproduction requires water. 1. true
True or False/ Gymnosperms reproduction requires water. 1. false
True or False/ Angiosperms reproduction requires water. 1. false
True or False/ Ferns reproduction requires water. 1. true
What is the alternation of generations? 1. when an organism has two reproductive forms, both sexual and a sexual, that it often alternates
What is a gametophyte? 1. its a plant that reproduces by making sperm and egg (sexual)
What is a sporophyte? 1. a plant that reproduces by making spores (asexual)
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