Knowledge

Dan Q
Flashcards by Dan Q, updated more than 1 year ago
Dan Q
Created by Dan Q over 5 years ago
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Justified True Belief (JTB)

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Question Answer
Acquaintance knowledge (Knowledge by Acquaintance) Refers to having the knowledge 'OF'. Eg. when you know someone because you have met them.
Ability Knowledge (Practical Knowledge) Refers to knowledge 'HOW' to do something Eg. knowing how to speak Russian
Propositional Knowledge (Factual Knowledge) Refers to knowledge 'THAT' something is the case. Eg. Knowing that squirrels collects nuts in the autumn
Propositional Knowledge IN DEPTH: .
Tripartite Theory of knowledge (Plato) the view that knowledge is Justified, true belief. JTB is 'Necessary and Sufficient' for propositional knowledge
Abbreviation of the expression; 'Subject knows a proposition' S (subject) knows that P (proposition) iff (If and only if) *S believes that P *P is true *S is justified in believing in P {THESE CONDITIONS ARE INDIVIDUALLY NECESSARY AND JOINTLY SUFFICIENT]
Tripartite view (Diagram) No two conditions are sufficient alone...
NOT KNOWLEDGE : Example of something with Belief and truth but no Justification Getting a phone call and before picking up you guess of someone and it is that person who has called.
NOT KNOWLEDGE : Example of something with Justification and belief but no Truth thinking the world is flat when in reality it is spherical.
NOT KNOWLEDGE : Example of something that has Justification and truth but no belief. having no belief when your house is rotting but there is justification (because builders confirmed) and it is true.
Problems with Tripartite theory of knowledge : *the conditions are not individually necessary *cases of lucky true belief that the justification condition should be either strengthened, added to or replaced.
KNOWLEDGE : without belief A man who takes a history test with the belief that he doesn't know the answers/information. But he gets all the answers correct despite the fact that he guessed them. [Radford claims hat he knew the answers but just didnt have the belief]
KNOWLEDGE without Justification Chicken sexers can guess the sex of chicks when they are born. they just pick them up and 'know' whether they are male or female but cannot tell how they know.
KNOWLEDGE without truth The world being flat was believe to be knowledge at the time, but it lacked the truth.
Gettier *the tripartite theory isn't enough. we could have all three conditions but it wouldn't be sufficient for knowledge.
Gettier's Example : (SIMPLIFIED) *Fred believes that Sam is in his office *Fred sees someone who looks just like Sam sitting at the desk in office. *Fred is therefore, justified in believing Sam is in his office. BUT, unknown to Fred, what he sees is not Sam but his twin brother Tim. Sam is hiding in the cabinet. IT IS THEREFORE TRUE THAT SAM IS IN HIS OFFICE .
Infallibilism : A belief can only qualify as knowledge if its impossible for us to be mistaken S knows P iff: *S believes in P *P is true *S is justified in believing in P -* S cannot be mistaken in believing in P
No False Lemmas (J+T+B+NL) Truth must be correctly connected to the evidence. Harmon suggested that incorrect connections lies in the fact that the persons chain of reasoning passes through a false step.
Reliabilism : (R+T+B) Claims that a belief only counts as knowledge if its true and produced by a reliable process : One that produces a high percentage of true beliefs.
Epistemic Virtue : (V+T+B) A belief can only be knowledge if the justification is replaced by a reliable person.
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