AS AQA Physics Unit 2

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Quarks and Leptons

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Define a Lepton A lepton is a fundamental particle that doesn't interact through the strong force. They include electrons, muons and neutrinos.
Define a Hadron Hadrons are particles that can interact through all 4 fundamental forces. They are split into baryons (made of 3 quarks) and mesons (a quark-anti quark pair)
Sort the following particles into lepton, baryon or meson proton neutron electron neutrino muon pion kaon proton - baryon neutron - baryon electron - lepton neutrino - lepton muon - lepton pion - meson kaon - meson
What must be conserved in all reactions? Charge baryon number lepton number (electron, muon and tau) Energy
What is not conserved in the weak interaction? Strangeness - because its strange. It is however, always conserved in strong interactions.
What are lepton numbers? Numbers associated with any leptons, that must be conserved in all interactions. +1 for leptons -1 for anti leptons 0 for non leptons
What are the properties of Up, Down and Strange quarks?
What is the quark combination for protons and neutrons? Proton = up, up, down (uud) Neutron = up, down, down (udd)
What occurs during beta- decay? A neutron turns into a proton, emitting an electron and an anti electron neutrino. One of the down quarks changes into a up quark. udd --> uud W- force carrier
What occurs during beta+ decay? A proton turns into a neutron, emitting a positron and an electron neutrino. An up quark changes into a down quark uud --> udd W+ force carrier
Explain why some interactions are never observed Because the reaction cannot happen, due to something not being conserved in the reaction
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