Anatomy Chapter 6

Haley Cordova
Flashcards by Haley Cordova, updated more than 1 year ago
Haley Cordova
Created by Haley Cordova over 5 years ago
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Description

(up to AP knee)

Resource summary

Question Answer
What 3 groups is the lower extremity broken into? Femur Tibia/Fibula Feet
How many bones are in the foot? 26
Which bones make up the longitudinal arches of the foot? Metatarsals
The joints in the foot are classified as? Synovial
The joints in the foot have _____________ mobility Diarthrodial
What type of movement occurs at the interphalangeal joints? Ginglymus/hinge
What type of movement occurs at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints? Ellipsoidal/condyloid
What type of movement occurs at the tarsometatarsal joints? Plane/gliding
What type of movement occurs at the intertarsal joints? Plane/gliding
What type of movement occurs at the ankle joint? Sellar (p. 219)
What is a common fracture site in the foot? The tuberosity at the base of the 5th metatarsal
Sesamoid bones are almost always present on what bone in the foot? First metatarsal
What is the largest and strongest tarsal bone? Calcaneus
What bones does the calcaneus articulate with? Talus and cuboid
What is the sustentaculum tali? A projection of bone on the medial side f the calcaneus that supports ("sustains") the talus
What position of the foot best demonstrates the sinus tarsi? Oblique foot
What 4 bones does the talus articulate with? Tibia Fibula Calcaneus Navicular
What is another name for the talus? Astragulus
What 4 bones does the navicular articulate with? Talus and 3 cuneiforms
What 3 bones does the cuboid articulate with? 4th metatarsal 5th metatarsal Calcaneus
What is the most lateral tarsal bone? Cuboid
What do the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cuneiforms articulate with respectively? 1st cuneiform articulates with 1st metatarsal and navicular 2nd cuneiform: 2nd metatarsal and navicular 3rd cuneiform: 3rd metatarsal and navicular
What tarsal bones are seen on an oblique foot? *Tuberosity of calcaneus* 2nd cuneiform Navicular Talus 3rd cuneiform Cuboid
What tarsal bones are seen on lateral foot? *Calcaneus *Tuberosity of calcaneus Cuboid Superimposed cuneiforms Navicular Talus Subtalar joint
What position is the best to evaluate the longitudinal arches in the feet? AP and Lateral Weight-bearing
What bones make up the transverse arch of the foot? Cuneiforms and cuboid
What 3 bones form the ankle joint? Talus Tibia Fibula
What is the mortise of the ankle joint? Three-sided socket on tibia and fibula that talus fits into
Which malleolus of the ankle is more distal and posterior than the other? Lateral malleolus
The "intermalleolar line" is ___° from the coronal plane because the lateral malleolus is more posterior 15°
The tibial plateau slopes in which direction at what angle (how many degrees)? Posteriorly 10-20°
Why might you need to angle the tube on an AP knee projection to demonstrate an open joint? The tibial plateau slopes posteriorly 10-20°
What is the tibial tuberosity? Prominence on anterior proximal tibia that serves as an attachment point for the patellar tendon
What is Osgood-Schlatter disease? Stress on the patellar tendon causes the tibial tuberosity to separate
What type of joint is the proximal tibiofibular joint? Synovial Diarthrodial Plane/gliding
What type of joint is the distal tibiofibular joint? Fibrous Amphiarthrodial (slightly moveable)
How much and in what direction should you angle the tube for an AP foot? 10-15° posteriorly
Where do you put the CR for an AP toe? On the MTP joint of interest
What will you see in a true AP position of the toes? Open joints Both sides of phalanges are concave
How much do you rotate the foot for an oblique toe? 35-40°
For a lateral or oblique position of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd toes, which way should the foot be rotated? Medially
For a lateral or oblique position of the 4th and 5th toes, which way should the foot be rotated? Laterally
Where do you put the CR for oblique toe? MTP joint of interest
Where do you put the CR for a lateral toe? 1st toe: IP joint 2nd-5th toes: PIP joint
If a foreign body is suspected, what should you do differently for an AP foot? CR should be perpendicular to IR instead of angled 10-15° posteriorly
What will happen if you don't angle the tube for an AP foot? You cannot see the joint spaces You should be able to see navicular, all 3 cuneiforms, cuboid, phalanges, and metatarsals
How much and in what direction do you rotate the foot for an oblique position? 30-40° medially
What features should you see in a radiograph of an oblique foot? Only the base of metatarsals 1 & 2 superimposed Tuberosity at base of 5th in profile Cuboid Sinus tarsi
How much and in what direction would you rotate the foot for a LATERAL OBLIQUE projection? 30° laterally
What does the lateral oblique positioning of the foot show? Navicular Medial cuneiform Space between 1st and 2nd cuneiforms
What should you see in a lateral foot radiograph? Tuberosity at base of 5th in profile Tibiotalar joint open Metatarsals superimposed
What is the benefit of doing a lateromedial projection for a lateral foot? Easier to achieve true lateral But is less comfortable for patient
How do you position for a sesamoid-tangential foot? Patient prone Dorsiflex foot to form 15-20° angle Dorsiflex 1st toe and rest it on IR CR directed tangentially to posterior aspect of 1st MTP (skimming back of 1st MTP)
What will you see in a sesamoid tangential radiograph of the foot? Sesamoids in profile, not superimposed
How much and in what direction do you angle the tube for a plantodorsal projection of the calcaneus? 40° cephalic
Where should you put the CR for a plantodorsal projection of the calcaneus? Base of 3rd metatarsal
In a plantodorsal projection of the calcaneus what will you see if there is no rotation? Sustentaculum tali will be seen medially
How do you position for a dorsoplantar projection of the calcaneus? (Not in Bontrager's but is listed for ARRT) Patient prone, foot dorsiflexed CR angled 40° caudad and directed to dorsal surface of ankle joint
How do you position for a mediolateral view of calcaneus? (Lateral calcaneus) Foot dorsiflexed and in lateral position CR 1½" inferior to medial malleolus
What should you see in a radiograph of mediolateral calcaneus? Calcaneus Talus Tibiotalar joint and sinus tarsi open
What joint spaces will be open in a radiograph of an AP ankle? Only medial and superior mortise joint spaces will be open The distal tibiofibular joint will not be open
How do you position for a AP mortise ankle? Do not dorsiflex 15-20° medial rotation so intermalleolar plane is parallel to IR CR midway between malleoli
What will you see in a mortise ankle radiograph? All 3 surfaces of mortise joint will be open
What will you see in an oblique ankle radiograph? Distal tibiofibular joint open Distal fibula free of superimposition
Where do you put the CR for a lateral ankle? On medial malleolus
For a lateral ankle, a mediolateral projection is most common but what is the benefit of doing a lateromedial projection? Easier to get true lateral But less comfortable for patient
What will you see in a radiograph of a lateral ankle? Lateral malleolus superimposed with the posterior half of the tibia Tibiotalar joint open
Which projection of the ankle is usually done by a physician? Stress projection (AP Ankle inversion-eversion)
How is the patient positioned in a stress projection of the ankle? Similar to AP Calcaneus CR to mid malleoli Stress is applied to either invert or evert plantar surface
Why is a stress projection usually done? To assess ligament tears
What will you see in a radiograph of AP lower leg? Both tibiofibular joints included Slight superimposition of both tib/fib joints Femoral and tibial condyles in profile Intercondylar eminence should be centered to intercondylar fossa
How much should the knee be flexed for a lateral lower leg? 45°
How can you tell if the leg is in a true lateral position? Plane of patella is perpendicular to IR
What will you see in a radiograph of a lateral lower leg? Tibial tuberosity in profile Distal fibula superimposed by posterior half of tibia
What is the patellar surface? (AKA intercondylar sulcus) Smooth triangular surface on anterior distal femur
What happens to the patella when the knee is flexed? It is drawn into the patellar surface (intercondylar sulcus)
What do the medial and lateral femoral condyles articulate with? Articular facets or tibial plateau of tibia
The medial femoral condyle is located 5-7° _______ to lateral femoral condyle Distal
What will you see in a true lateral knee? Medial and lateral femoral condyles will be superimposed
What will you see on a lateral knee radiograph if the knee is not in a true lateral position (over-rotated)? Adductor tubercle Also medial and lateral femoral condyles will not be superimposed
What is the intercondylar fossa? A deep notch between the femoral condyles
What two joints does the knee include? Femorotibial joint (femoral condyles articulating with the tibial plateau) Patellofemoral joint (femoropatellar joint)
What type of movement occurs at the femorotibial joint? Bicondylar
What type of movement occurs at the patellofemoral joint? Sellar/saddle
Both knee joints are classified as ___________ and ____________ ? Synovial Diarthrodial
What are the cruciate knee ligaments? Ligaments that crisscross front to back connecting the tibia to the femur
What does the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prevent? Anterior dislocation of the knee
What does the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) prevent? Posterior dislocation of the knee
What are the collateral knee ligaments? Ligaments at the sides of the knee that prevent adduction and abduction
What bones does the medial collateral ligament connect? The tibia to the femur
What bones does the lateral collateral ligament connect? The fibula to the femur
What are menisci? C-shaped discs between the tibia and femur that absorb shock in the knee joint
What type of cartilage are the menisci made of? Fibrocartilage
What does the femoral head articulate with? Acetabulum of pelvis
What forms the hip joint? Head of femur articulating with acetabulum of pelvis
What is the depression on the head of the femur called? Fovea capitis
What is the intertrochanteric crest? Bony ridge between trochanters on the posterior femur
The line through the head and neck of the femur is angled ___________ to the body of the femur Anteriorly
How much should the femur be rotated for an AP position? 15-20° internally
Why do we rotate the femur for an AP position? To make the femoral neck parallel to the IR Otherwise it will be angled
What structure is used to determine correct rotation of femurs for an AP view? Lesser trochanter
For a true AP the lesser trochanter should be ? Only slightly visible or not visible at all
What does it mean if you can see the lesser trochanter of the femur in a radiograph? The femur is not in true AP, it needs to be rotated internally
Where does the CR go for an AP knee? ½" distal to the apex of the patella
How much should you rotate the leg for an AP knee? 3-5° medially
For AP knee, if ASIS is 18cm or less from tabletop, CR should be angled ____________? 5° caudad
For AP knee, if ASIS is 19-24cm from tabletop CR should be angled ______________? CR should not be angled Perpendicular to IR
For AP knee, if ASIS is 25cm or more from tabletop, CR should be angled _______ ? 5° cephalad
What should be seen in a radiograph of an AP knee? Intercondylar eminence centered to intercondylar fossa Portion of fibula superimposed with tibia Femoral and tibial condyles symmetrical Femorotibial joint space open
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