Microbiology Chapters 1, 3, 5, 11 and 13

Flashcards by brehliekanne, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by brehliekanne almost 5 years ago


1, 3, 5, 11 and 13

Resource summary

Question Answer
Shapes of prokaryotic bacteria coccus bacillus coccobacillus spirochete spirillium pleomorphic vibrio
Prokaryotic Bacteria Cell Arrangements diplococci pallisade streptococci staphylococci tetrads sarcinae
3 Methods of Prokaryotic Bacteria Reproduction binary fission budding/fragmentation sapping division
Archaea Dont cause disease Cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan cell memb. linked lipids= extra stability similar to eukaryotes methanogens found in extreme environments
Extreme Environments for Archaea halophiles thermophiles hyperthermophiles psychrophiles
Viruses nonliving very small acellular have genetic material different form outside body than inside
Virions Extracellular form of viruses has a protein coat- capsid protein subunits- capsomeres nucleic acid and capsid- nucleocapsid some have phospholipid envelope
Intracellular form of viruses Called a virus no capsid exists as a nucleic acid as it leaves cell, it takes a part of host cell membrane and uses it to infect another cell
Genetic material of viruses classified by type of DNA they contain nucleic acid may be DNA or RNA (ds or ss) linear and composed of several segments single and circular much smaller than genomes of cells
Viral envelope found in animal viruses acquired from host cell phospholipid bilayer and proteins
Spikes virally encoded glycoproteins
Role of viral envelope and proteins aide in host recognition
Bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria
Viral Replication dependent on hosts' organelles and enzymes to produce new virions replication cycle usually results in death and lysis of host
Lytic Replication Replication involving death and lysis of host cell Stages: 1. attachment 2. entry 3. synthesis 4. assembly 5. release
Lysogeny Viral DNA gets incorporated into host chromosome May carry genes that change host's phenotype (toxins or enzymes)
Transduction viruses can carry genes from one bacterial cell to another
Capsid Shapes helical polyhedral complex
Types of Metabolism catabolism and anabolism oxidation and reduction ATP production and energy storage enzymes in metabolism
Catabolism phosphorylation of ADP to ATP 1. substrate level phosphorylation 2. oxidative phosphorylation 3. photophosphorylation
Anabolism spending energy to make more complex proteins
Make up of a protein enzyme inorganic cofactor coenzyme (organic cofactor) apoenzyme (protein) whole thing is called a holoenzyme
Influences on enzyme activity Temperature pH Salt concentration Substrate and Enzyme concentrations Presence of Inhibitors
Inhibitors block/inactivate active site
competitive inhibitors bind to active site
noncompetitive inhibitors bind to allosteric site and change shape of active site
Negative feedback inhibitors excess product binds to first enzyme to stop process
Not strictly inhibitors metals bind to other regions of enzyme, resulting in change of shape bind to some hydroxyl groups and destry tertiary structure of overall enzyme
Carbohydrate Catabolism glucose used most commonly, but some bacteria cannot use glucose
Aerobic Cellular Respiration In cytoplasm: glycolysis oxidation of pyruvate Kreb's cycle In Cell Membrane: ETC O2 reduced, H2O formed, H+ ions get pulled in and pushed out
Anaerobic Cellular Respiration No Oxygen used Inorganic Electron Acceptors (iron, sulfur, nitrate, CO2) Amount of ATP made varies Waste is NOT H2O and needs to be excreted by the cell
Alternatives to Glycolysis *Embden Meyerhof Pathway Yield fewer ATP Reduce coenzymes Yield metabolites needed in anabolic pathways Two Pathways: Pentose- Phosphate Entner-Duodoroff Pathway
Pentose-Phosphate Pathway NADH- plays role in DNA/RNA synthesis ATP Precursor metabolites
Entner-Doudoroff Pathway used by only a few bacteria NADPH- coenzyme of enzymes used to synthesize DNA ucleotides, steroids and fatty acids ATP precursor metabolites
Glycolysis produces two ATP
Krebs Cycle 2 ATP NADH
Electron Transport Chain series of redox reactions
Fermentation Partial oxidation of sugar oxygen not used utilizes glycolysis NADH never goes to ETC Pyruvic acid not broken down to energy 2 ATP per glucose needed to keep glycolysis doing converts pyruvic acid into another compound in order to regenerate
Microbial Growth increase in number
Requirements for microbial growth sources of carbon, energy and electrons nitrogen requirements- in proteins O2 requirements vary other chemicals
CO2 source of carbon energy for autotrophs
Microaerophiles grow best with reduced oxygen concentration
facultative anaerobes aerobically respire if oxygen is present, but can switch and ferment if needed
Aerotolerant Anaerobes dont use O2, but can stand its presence
Capnophiles require high CO2 and low O2
Growth factors vitamins, certain amino acids, purines, pyrimadines, NADH, heme, etc.
Psychrophiles 0-20 degrees celsius
Mesophiles 15-45 degrees celsius
Thermophiles 45-70 degrees celsius
Hyperthermophiles 65-100 degrees celsius
Osmotic pressure bacteria will crenate in hypertonic solutions Restricts organisms to certain environments (facultative and obligate halophiles)
Hydrostatic Pressure water exerts pressure in proportion to depth deeper= higher barometric pressure ex barophiles
Quorum sensing density dependent responses, if a certain chemical density is reached, a new action is triggered
Colony Morphology shape, margin, pigmentation, elevation, margin, size, texture, appearance, optical property
Media must be sterile liquid or solid must contain nutrients and conditions required by particular organism proper incubation temp
Defined Media know exactly all ingredients
Complex media dont know all ingredients exactly
Selective media Is bacteria in there? is it gram negative?
Differential Media Metabolic info
Anaerobic media Solid: poke bacteria in bottom of test tube full of media Broth: reducing media (ex: thioglycolate) Candle Jar Gas Pack System
Saving Cultures Refrigeration- short term Deep freezing- long term- glycerol- 80 c Lyphophilization- flask with powder in super chilled under vaccuum
Generation time time required for pop. to double N(# of cells) x 2^(# generation)
Phases of bacterial growth Lag phase Log Phase Stationary Death
Lag phase figure out where they are and what they've got to work with. NO increase in #
Log phase phase needed for gram stain
Leeuwenhoek first to observe microbes in pond water
Eukaryotes fungi protozoa algae helminths
Prokaryotes Bacteria Archaea
Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation proposed biogenesis
biogenesis all life derived from some pre-existing cell
Koch developed way to grow bacteria in pure culture created postulates for associating organism with disease
Gram developed gram stain isolation of bacteria
Semmelweis hand washing
Lister sterilized surgical tools
Nightingale pioneer of sanitation founder of modern nursing
Jenner developed small pox vaccine
<1% percent of microbes that cause disease
Gram Negative thin peptidoglycan outer membrane Lipopolysaccharide and lipid A porins periplasmic space Gram stain pink typically more resistant to antibiotics
Porins transport proteins in outer membrane that are allow for the passage of specific molecules
uniport one molecule in/out
antiport two molecules in opposite directions
Symport two molecules in same direction
group translocation chemically modified as soon as they enter port, membrane impermeable to altered form
70s ribosomes prokaryotes
80s ribosomes eukaryotes
Gram positive rods form endospores
Endospore Core- DNA, RNA, proteins, dipicolinic acid, calcium Cortex- 2 membranes w/ peptidoglycan in between Spore Coat- layers of keratin-like protein
Slime Layer mostly polysaccharides and some protein, unorganized, water soluble, loosely attached, prevents drying, allows attachment, traps nutrients
Capsule mostly polysaccharides with some proteins, highly organized, tightly adhering to cell, prevents drying, helps escape phagocyte
pellicle floating biofilm
runs counterclockwise rotation (positive chemotaxis)
tumbles changes in direction, clockwise rotation (negative chemotaxis)
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