Drug Abuse and Drug Addiction - L1

Anna mph
Flashcards by Anna mph, updated more than 1 year ago
Anna mph
Created by Anna mph over 5 years ago
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Degree Neuropharmacology Flashcards on Drug Abuse and Drug Addiction - L1, created by Anna mph on 23/12/2015.

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Question Answer
Define Drug Abuse Taking of drugs for non-medicinal purposes
Drug addiction Is a brain disease defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease which is characterized by drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences.
Define stimulants - give four examples. Substances which increase energy/alertness - also induce euphoria. Caffeine Nicotine Amphetamine Ecstasy like substances
What do depressants do? Give 2 main classes. Cause relaxation and euphoria. Alcohol Opioids Marijuana
What is used to treat opiate addiction? Methadone.
What do hallucinogens do? What kind of effect do they have? What do they target? Cause changes in perception - dissociative effects. Glutamate 2a receptors.
What is ketamine, where does it act? Hallucinogen, NMDA channel blocker.
Why do people take drugs? 1) Feel good 2) To feel better 3) To do better 4) Curiosity and because other do it.
How do animals learn behaviours and what can this be exploited by? Learn by reward system - drugs take advantage of this, taking drugs activates the reward system
What kinds of dependence are there? Psychological Physical Long term illness
Why do physical withdrawal symptoms occur? Body adapts to presence of drug. When drug is removed changes made in system come to light.
Which system does alcohol act at? GABA
What are the important neurotransmitters involved in addiction? Dopamine 5-HT Glutamate
What effects does LSD have on 5-HT receptors? (2) 1) Elevation of mood 2) Altered perception
Which receptor does LSD act on? What does it act as? 5-HT2a Agonist
What do drugs acting on the glutamate system cause? Altered perception Enhanced memory
What effect do 5-HT2a agonists have on glutamate levels, where especially? What effect does this lead to? Increase glutamate level, especially in frontal areas of the brain. Dissociative effects.
What is the key pathway in reward? Ventral Tegmental Area to Nucleus Accumbens.
What is dopamine released in response to? Positive outcomes.
What does the rate of onset of a drug depend on? How it is administered - Ingestion = slow, injection = quick
How does onset of drug effect the euphoric feeling? The faster the delivery the greater the rush.
What are the parts of the brain involved in drug addiction? What happens to these pathways? Reward + Drive (DA) Self control (prefrontal cortex + glutamate) Motivation (glutamate) Pathway strength changes REWARD MEMORY AND DRIVE INCREASE CONNECTIONS
What other part of the brain is activated in addiction? What effect does this have? Amygdala - emotional responses to drugs and drug paraphernalia
Where does .... act on the reward pathway? Stimulants (cocaine and amphetamine) (2) 1) Both directly on DA transporters at presynaptic terminal by NAc 2)Amphetamine inhibits MAO
Opiates and alcohol? 1) Opiates inhibit VTA GABAergic interneurons, disinhibiting DA neurons 2) Alcohol stimulates the release of opioids, which then act on GABAergic interneuron.
Nicotine? 1) Acts directly on nAChR at DA neuron (increasing likelihood of action potential release of dopamine at NAc cleft) 2) Stimulates glutamate neurons which are feeding into DA at VTA
Cannabinoids? Act on CB1 receptors, enhance efficacy of Dopamine at NAc
PCP/Ketamine Modulate excitatory input from glutamatergic neuron at NAc
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