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Invertebrates. Biology. Primero ESO

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Characteristics of animals - Limited growth - Move from one place to another - Bilateral symmetry - High level of interaction - Increasingly complex - Respiratory organs -Sexual reproduction - Internal and external fertilisation. Offspring development: direct or indirect.
Classification of the animal kingdom Depending on whether they have a backbone and an internal skeleton made up of bones: VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. Scientic criteria: 40 groups or phyla
Characteristics of invertebrate animals - They do not have a backbone - They are ectotherms (their temperature is dependent of the temperature outside their bodies.
Classification of invertebrates - Porifera - Cnidarians - Flatworms - Nematodes - Annelids - Molluscs - Arthropods - Echinoderms
Porifera SPONGES Porifera are aquatic sessile animals that mainly live in the sea. Asymmetrical or radial symmetry. No true tissues or organs.
Porifera characteristics - Sac shaped. Pores. Internal skeleton: Spicules or spòngin. - Feed by using a filtration process. - Sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction by fragmentartion.
Structure and cells of porifera dc33a65f-78cb-4ede-b9bb-431129243500.JPG (image/JPG)
Cnidarians Cnidarians are aquatic animals that have radial symmetry. Simple tissues and some of then have organs.
Cnidarians groups - Polyps: Internal skeleton or mineral external skeleton. Jellyfish: Umbrella-shaped. Hydrostatic skeleton
Cnidarians characteristics - Digestive cavity with a hole with tentacles around. -Cnidoblasts can paralise the prey. - Carnivores. No respiratory or excretory system. - Sexual reproduction. Polyps through budding. Some species alternating reproduction.
Worms - ´Flatworms, Nematodes and annelids - Bilateral symmetry - Humid climates They do not have jointed appendages
Flatworms Simplest animals that have bilateral symmetry and cephalisation of the nervous system.
Groups of flatworms - Tapeworms: Parasites that live in the intestine of ogher animals. They are hermaphrodites. - Planarians: Humid climates (seas, rivers and lakes). Sexually and asexually. They can regenerate. Digestive cavity only has a single orifice in the middle of the body.
Nematodes Worms with unsegmende cylindrical bodies. - Digestive system: Mouth and anus. - Sexual reproduction
Annelids Worms with segmented cylindrical bodies divided into segments called metaremes - Complete digestive tube with a mouth and an anus - Aquatic (gills)/ terrestrial (cutaneous). Closed circulatory system. - Sexual reproduction
Molluscs - Soft bodies and bilateral symmetry. - Aquatic. Exceptions: Snails and slugs
Characteristics of moluscs - External layer (mantle) sorrounds internal organs. - Have a shell - Defined head - Muscular foot - Complete digestive tube - Aquatic (gills)/ Terrestrial (Cavity that works like lungs) -Sexual reproduction by internal fertilisation - Groups: Bivalves, gastropods and cephalopods
Bivalves - Aquatic. Two external shells or valves joined by hinges. - Filter feeders. - Breathe through gills.
Gastropods - External spiral-shaped shell. - Mouth and four tentacles. - Heart and open circulatory system
Cephalopods - Their foot is next to the head. Internal shell (except octopi) - Head, tentacles with suction cups, jaw and closed circulatory system.
Arthropods Most varied and largest phylum of the animal kingdom.
Arthropods characteristics - Bilateral symmetry - Exoskeleton made of chitin. Moulting or ecdysis. - Segmented bodies - Appendages - Complete digestive system - Breathe through tracheas. Open circulatory system. - Nervous system and sense organs developed - Sexual reproduction by internal fertilisation. Metamorphosis.
Myriapods Terrestrial arthropods. A pair of antennae. Bodies divided into segments with one of two pairs of legs on each of the segments. Breathe through tracheas an they are oviparous
Groups of myriapods - Chilopoda (centipedes): One pair of legs on each segment. Carnivorous. Use his first pair of legs to capture prey. - Diplopoda (milipedes). Cilindrical bodies. Two pairs of legs on each segment. Herbivores or detritivores.
Arachnids Terrestrial arthropods. Body: cephalothorax and abdomen. - 4 pairs of legs. No antennae. - Sensory appendages: Pedipalps - Chelicerae: Mouthpart. To inject prey with venom. - Types: Spiders, scorpions and mites
Crustaceans - Body: cephalothorax and abdomen. - 2 pairs of antennae. - Five pair of legs. - Aquatic. - Mobile eyes, jaws, legs and antennae - Non- articulated appendages - Carnivorous. Filtration - Metamorphosis - Examples: Crabs, lobsters, barnacles and praws.
Insects - Head, thorax and abdomen - A pair of antennae on the head and three on the thorax. One or Two pair of wings. Live on land - Compound eyes - Metamorphosis: -Incomplete: nymph - Complete: Larvae - pupa or chrisalys
Echinoderms - Aquatic. Live in the sea - Radial symmetry - Ambulacral system - Dermoskeleton - Complete digestive system - Sexual reproduction with external fertilization. Asexually by fragmentation.
Classes of echinoderms - Echinoids: Globular bodies with fuse plates and long spikes - Asteroideans: Starfish. Disc-shaped bodies with five arms - Holothurians: Sea cucumbers. Long bodies with no arms or spikes.
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