chapter 2 research method flashcards

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jmmckeithan
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Ethical Principles for animal research Research must have a clear , scientific purpose
Standard deviation shows how far scores vary from the mean ( average) score
68-95-99.7 rule means 68% of all scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean (average ) Approx. 95% off all scores fall within two standrad deviations of the mean 99.7%
Normal Distribution forms a bell shaped or symmetrical curve( upside down U)
Mode the most frequently occuring score
Median the middle score , score that divides a frequency distribution excatly in half
Mean the average , sum of a set of scores divide by the number of scores
operational definitioins statement of ypour procedures , identifies the iv & dv, sampling and assignment
Dependent variable what is being measured in an experiment , the research variable that " depends" on the independent variable
Random assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance
cross sectional study compares individuals at various ages at one point in time.
Longitudinal study studies a single individual or a group over an extended period of time
zero correlation indicates there is no nrelationship between 2 variables
negative correlation -1.00 closest to it , means 2 variables move in the opposite direction
positive correlation +1.00 closest to it , mean 2 variables move in the same direction
correlation coefficient a number value that indicates the strenghth and direction of the relationship between two variables
c researhers observe or measure a relationship between variables
participants bias tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed
researcher bias tendency for researchers to look for evidence that supports their hypothesis and ignore contradictory evidence
surveys descriptive method , uses questionnaries or interviews
skewed distribution distrubition with most scores squeezed to one end , few scores stretch out like tail
Reliability consistency or repeatability of results .
random selection choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen for a sample
random assignment division of the sample in an experiment into groups so that every individual has an equal chance of being put in any group
quasi- experiment measurment of dv ( dependent variable ) when random assignment to groups of a randomly selected sample is not possible
Quantitative Data Information can be reported as numbers for ease of handling.
Placebo distributed through population . Ex. sat
Normal Distribution Represented by a normal curve ( upside down U shape ) symmetric with mean, mode , and median the same score
Naturalistic Observations Observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations w/o trying to manipulate and conrol situation
Inferential statistics statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Hypothesis Prediction of how 2 or more factors are likely to be related
Experimental group group that you experimenting on receives the independent variables
Experiment Research method that involves manipulation of an independent variable
Ethical guidlines for human research 10 informed consent
Descriptive statistics numbers that summarize a set of research data from a sample
Confounding variable Factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable
Central Tendency Describes average of a distribution
Case studies research technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
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