Biology 2050 Final exam

Flashcards by devon_layman, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by devon_layman over 7 years ago


DNA Replication and Translation

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Question Answer
the cell the basic unit of life - all things are made up of this
1. cellular organization 2. metabolism 3. homeostasis 4. growth and reproduction 5. Heredity 6. respond to stimuli the six things that make all living organisms
DNA is made up of? Nucleotides
Proteins made up of? Amino acids
Who used streptococcus pnemoniae? Frederick Griffith (1928)
What was injected into mice? Rough Strain Smooth strain
Who determined the transforming factor to be in DNA? (1944) Oswald Avery and colleagues
who used a bacteriophage? Alfred Hershey/ Martha Chase (1952)
What did Pheobus Levine contribute to the structure of DNA? Figured out that DNA is made of nucleotides
what are nucleotides? 5 carbon sugar (ribose) with an a phosphate group (PO4) and then nitrogen containing a base.
what are the four nitrogen bases? (A) adenine (G) Guanine (C) Cytosine (T) Thyminne
What did Erwin Chargoff contribute to the structure of DNA? He determined that there were equal proportions of the nitrogen bases.
What did Rosalind Franklin contribute to the structure of DNA? She used and x-ray crystallography to see what DNA looks like.
What did Franklin find from the X-ray? DNA is Helical has repeating measurements 2nm, 3.4nm, .34nm
Who where the ones to figure out the structure of DNA? Watson and Crick
DNA is helical which means? double strands of nucleotides wrapped around each other
what bonds bind the DNA together? Hydrogen bonds
which nitrogen bases bond with each other? Adenine = Thymine Guanine = Cytosine
what nitrogen bases are purines? Adenine & Guanine which make triple bonds
what nitrogen bases are pyrimidines? Thymine & Cytosine with double bonds
what is the diameter of DNA? 2 nm
what is the distance between bases pairs in DNA .34nm
how many base pairs re in one helical turn? 10 bases
From what end to to what end is DNA read? 5' to 3'
DNA is replicated Semiconservtively (define) each newly synthesized strand will retain one original parent strand and one newly synthesized strand.
DNA Helicase Separates the 2 strands of DNA (breaks the hydrogen bonds)
DNA polymerase reads the DNA strand and synthesizes the complimentary DNA strand
Primer Small strand of RNA (5 to 10 bases) that initiates every new DNA
topoisomerase cuts the DNA and relieves the tension as it's uncoiling
Ligase what glues together the to strands of DNA
Leader Strand Starts at 5' and is made continuously
Lagging Strand starts at the 3'end and made backwards in small fragments
Sing strand binding protein prevent the DNA from coming back together again
Bacteriophage a virus that attacks bacteria
What did Frederick Griffith learn from his experiment? found out that the R-strain must have picked up something (transforming factor) and used it to transform from R-strain to and S-strain.
how does DNA Replication occur? 1. DNA Helicase separates the DNA 2. then the single stranded binding proteins bind to the DNA to make sure it doesn't close up 3. Then a primer starts at the end making it then easy to then go duplicate 4. DNA Polymerase then reads the DNA and copies it.
on one strand of DNA how many DNA polymerase can replicate Prockaryotes DNA? It can be replicated 3 times
On one stand of Eukaryotes DNA, how many times can it be replicated at once? 11 different DNA polymerase at one time
how many base are in a Okazaki fragment? 100-200 Eukaryotic 1000-2000 Prokaryotic
Origin of Replication where replication occurs
Transcription synthesizing the RNA from the complimentary DNA
Translation Reading the RNA and synthesizing the complimentary protein
Promoter a special sequence at the beginning of every gene
Template Strand The strand that contains the genes information
intron junk region in the RNA
Exon regions that code for genes
SnRNP's Splicesomes that pull the intron out and pulls the exons together
mRNA (messenger) this is the copy of the genes that will be translated
tRNA (Transfer RNA) to transport the different amino acid
rRNA (ribosomal) this becomes part of the ribosomes
Ribosomes Does protein translation and is made of ribosomal RNA and Proteins
Polyribosome Multiple ribosomes bound to, and translationg the mRNA at on time
Anticodon complimentary to a codon on a mRNA strand
codon a code for a complimentary anticodon with an amino acid attacked
RNA Polymerase the making of RNA from DNA
how does transcription occur? 1. RNA polymerase binds to promoter splitting the DNA apart 2. RNA Pol moves down the DNA synthesizing it to a RNA strand 3. once the RNA reaches the termination sequence the DNA will recoil, and the RNA will separate
where does translation and transcription occur in a eukaryotic cell Transcription occurs in the nucleus and Translation occurs in the cytoplasm
where does translation occur in a prokaryotic cell both occur in the cytoplasm
what is the start codon? AUG
What is the stop codon? UAA
what is the name of the 4 mutations in RNA? 1. Silent 2. Missense 3. Nonsense 4. Frameshift
what does a silent mutation do? does not effect the body, usually occurs in the third base in the codon
what is a missense mutation? -usually occurs in bases 1 and 2 of a codon will usually encode a different amino acid -could have a huge impact on how the protein functions
what is a nonsense mutation? encodes a stop codon prematurely, so translation stops before the protein is completely synthesized so protein is non-functioning
what is a frameshift mutation? when extra bases are added or deleted which the produces all wrong amino acids
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