finished flashcards 2/22/16

Flashcards by bcarlton, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by bcarlton over 5 years ago


These are my now completed flashcard from the list of 75 words.

Resource summary

Question Answer
central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
somatic nervous system ( voluntary nervous system) is part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements
autonomic nervous system the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily function not consciously directed such as breathing, heat beating, and digestive processes
sympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that contains chiefly adrenergic fibers that tend to depress secretion, decrease the tone and contractility of smooth muscle, and increase heart rate
parasympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that contains chiefly cholinergic fibers, that tends to induce secretion, to increase the contractility and tone of smooth muscle, and to slow heart rate, and that consists of a cranial and a sacral part
reflexes an action that is performed as a response to an activated stimulus and without conscious thought
endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs
hormones a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues to an action
adrenal glands either of two small endocrine glands, one located above each kidney : the outer portion or cortex secretes steroid hormones ( corticosteroids) : the inner portion or medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
pituitary gland a major endocrine gland. a pea sized body attached to the base of the brain and is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of other endocrine glands
lesion a region in an organ tissue that has suffered damage through injury or disease such as a wound, abscess, tumor, ulcer, etc..
electroencephalogram ( EEG) a test or record of brain activity produced by electroencephalography
computed tomography (CT) scan radiography in which a three dimensional image of a body structure is constructed by computer from a series of plane cross sectional images made along an axis
positron emission tomography (PET) scan an imaging test that helps to reveal how your tissues and organs are functioning
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a form of medical imaging that measures the response of the atomic nuclei of body tissues to high frequency radio waves when placed in a strong magnetic field and that produces images of the internal organs
fMRI (functional MRI) a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow
hindbrain the lower part of the brainstem, comprising the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata
medulla the inner region of an organ or tissue, especially when it is distinguishing from the outer region or cortex
pons the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus
cerebellum the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates it coordinates and regulates muscle activity
midbrain a small central part of the brainstem, developing from the middle or embryonic brain
reticular formation a diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and meditating the overall level of consciousness
forebrain the anterior part of the brain, including the central hemispheres, the thalamus, and hypothalamus
thalamus either of two masses of gray matter lying between the cerebral hemispheres on either side of the third ventricle, relaying sensory information and acting as a center for pain perception
hypothalamus a region of the forebrain below the thalamus that coordinates both the autonomic nervous system and the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic systems and involved in sleep and emotional activity
amygdala a roughly almond shaped mass of gray matter inside each cerebral hemisphere, involved with experiencing emotions
hippocampus center of emotions and memory
limbic system a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fears, pleasure,and anger) and drives ( hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring)
cerebral cortex the outer layer of the cerebrum, composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness
left hemisphere located on the left side of the brain: the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and in humans, usually controls, speech, language, and functions
right hemisphere the cerebral hemisphere to the right of the corpus callosum, controlling activities on the left side of the body, and in humans, usually controlling the conception of spatial and nonverbal concepts
brain lateralization complex and ongoing process by which different regions of the brain "take over", the functioning of specific behaviors and cognitive skills
corpus callosum a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain
lobes each of the parts of the cerebrum of the brain
association areas the region of the cortex of the brain that connects sensory and motor areas, and that is thought to be concerned with higher mental activities
frontal lobe each of the paired lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead, includes areas concerned with behavior, learning, personality, and voluntary movement
broca's area concerned with the production of speech, located in the cortex of the dominant frontal lobe
wernicke's area located in the left posterior temporal lobe and is associated with comprehension of language
aphasia loss of ability to understand or express speech caused by brain damage
motor cortex part of the cerebral cortex in the brain where nerve impulses originate that initiate voluntary muscle activity
sensory cortex umbrella term that encompasses all the senses
parietal lobe associated with the sense of touch
occipital lobe rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain
temporal lobe lobe that is associated with hearing
brain plasticity refers to the ability of the brain to modify its own structure and functioning following changes within the body or in the external environment
Roger Sperry psychologist that won a Nobel prize for his split brain research done among others
prosopagnosia the inability to recognize faces of familiar people
Parkinson's Disease disease of the nervous system marked by tremors, muscular rigidity, and slow imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle aged and elderly people
schizophrenia a long term mental disorder involving a breakdown between thought, emotion, and behavior
Multiple Sclerosis a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord
Alzheimers Disease progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or older age, generalized degeneration of the brain
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