Chapter 9 development flashcards

Flashcards by bcarlton, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by bcarlton over 4 years ago


These are my chapter nine flashcards vocabulary.

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Question Answer
developmental psychologist the scientific study of how and why human beings develop over the course of their life
nature vs nuture one of the oldest arguments in the history of psychology; each side has good points but it is hard to determine if a person's development is predisposed in their DNA of if the majority of it is influenced by experiences and environment
cross sectional research type of observational study that involves the analysis of data collected from a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point and time
longitudinal study study conducted over a long period of time
zygote, embryo, fetus an embryo is considered to be defined as the organism between the first division of the zygote ( a fertilized egg) until it becomes a fetus
teratogens an agent of factor that causes malformation in an embryo
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) caused by excessive consumption of alcohol by mother during pregnancy
rooting reflex neonates tendency to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek
moro reflex the infant will spread out its arms when it feels like it is falling
babinski reflex an infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke of the foot
Harry Harlow's attachment research Harry Harlow used baby monkeys to show contact comfort and applied to baby humans
contact comfort the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact
Konrad Lorenz and imprinting studied instinct behavior in animals; young animal comes to recognize something else as its parent
critical period maturational stage in the life span in which the nervous system is very sensitive to certain stimuli
Mary Ainsworth /"Strange Situation" observes attachment relationships between a caregiver and child; it applies to children between the ages of nine and eighteen months
secure attachment classified by children that show distress when their caregiver leaves
avoidant attachment theory that proposes that the type of romantic relationship one has with an adult is determined by the type of relationship had with one's caregiver as a child
anxious ambivalent attachment attachment style where the child will ignore the caregiver, showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns
authoritarian ( parenting style) parents have high expectations and strict rules and expect them to be followed unconditionally
permissive non directive or lenient parent, normally having few expectations for the child
authoritative usually not as controlling as authoritarian parents, allowing the child to explore more freely, thus having them make their own decisions based on their own reasoning
Sigmund Freud father of psychoanalysis
Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Theory comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence
schemata a representation of a plan or theory in the form of an outline or model
assimilation the process by which a person or persons acquire the social and psychological characteristics of a group
accommodation a convenient arrangement; a settlement or compromise
sensorimotor stage the first stage Jean Piaget uses to define cognitive development; during this period, infants are busy discovering relationships between their body and the environment.
object permanence understanding that objects still exist even when they can not be observed
preoperational stage the second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development; begins at age about age two when child begins to talk and ends at about age seven; children begin to engage in symbolic play and manipulate symbols
egocentric the thinking only of oneself, without regard to the desires or feelings of others; self centered
animism the belief in a supernatural power that organizes and animates the material universe
concrete operations performing a variety of mental operations and thoughts using concrete concepts
law of conservation principle that in any closed system subjected to no external forces, the mass is constant irrespective of its changes in form
formal operations person is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning
deferred gratification- Stanford University Marshmallow experiment the ability to resist temptation for immediate reward and wait for a later reward
Lev Vygotsky russian psychologist ;"social development theory"
zone of proximal development (ZPD) the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help
Erik Erikson's psychological development theory psychoanalytical theory which identifies eight stages through which a healthy developing human being should pass through from infancy to adulthood
trust vs. mistrust trust is defined as "an essential truthfulness of others as well as a fundamental sense of one's own trustworthiness"
autonomy vs. shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychological development; this stage occurs between the ages of 18 months and to approximately age two to three years; children at this stage are focused on developing a greater sense of self control
initiative vs. guilt this stage occurs in the preschool years between the ages of three and five ; children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and social interaction
industry vs. inferiority fourth stage in theory of psychological development; occurs during childhood between ages six and eleven
identity vs. role confusion adolescence go through a psychological crisis , which involves exploring who they are as adults
intimacy vs. isolation sixth stage of psychosocial development, this stage takes place during young adulthood usually between the ages of 19 and 40; during this period, the major conflict centers on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people
generativity vs. stagnation the seventh stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development; take place during middle adulthood between the ages of 40 and 65
integrity vs. despair the final stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Lawrence Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget
preconventional stage the conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults
conventional stage consists of the third and fourth stage of moral development
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