Water on the land

Flashcards by 11kifgeob, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by 11kifgeob over 5 years ago


GCSE Geography Flashcards on Water on the land, created by 11kifgeob on 02/24/2016.

Resource summary

Question Answer
what is the water cycle? precipitation surface/ground water transpiration/evaporation condensation
what is precipitation? rainwater snow hail sleet
what is another word for sediment? alluvium
what are the 4 factors that cause deposition? river carries a large load of sediment reduction in velocity an obstruction fall in volume of river water
what is river discharge? the volume of water passing through the river at any one time
what is river discharge measured in? cumecs (cubic meters per second.)
what factors affect discharge? land use temperature previous weather conditions rock type
what are the ideal conditions for high river discharge? high land= heavy rainfall steep slopes= fast surface run off no interception impermeable rock= doesn't allow water to pass through)
features the upper course of a river? interlocking spurs waterfalls gorges v-shaped valleys tributaries
processes of the upper course river? vertical erosion
features of rivers, channels and bed loads of upper course river? large, angular bed load narrow rivers and channels shallow rivers
features of the middle course of a river? meanders tributaries wider, flatter valley oxbow lakes floodplain
processes of the middle course? lateral erosion (horizontal)
features of the rivers, channels and bed loads in the middle course? smaller rounded bed load
Features of the lower course river? levees (raised river banks) floodplains river mouth tributaries delta (alluvium spreads into sea)
Processes of the lower course? mostly suspended deposition suspention
features of rivers, channels and bed loads in lower course? alluvium (fine sediment)
how do waterfalls and gorges form?
how do meanders form? gradient of the river is falter (slope) lateral erosion takes place river current is stronger on the outside of the bend= erosion current is weaker on the inside= deposition overtime the river curves due to erosion on the outside and deposition on the inside
cross section of a meander
how do oxbow lakes form? 1) erosion on the outside of the meander 2) over time the meander neck becomes narrower 3) during a flood, the river cuts through the meander neck 4) over time, deposition cuts off the meander, forming an oxbow lake 5) when the river dries up, it forms a meander scar
how are floodplains formed? 1) over thousands of years the river carries alluvium from the upper and middle course 2) alluvium is then deposited 3) the river floods carrying alluvium over the river banks = more deposition 4) meanders migrate over time
way levees are formed? 1) RIVER IN FLOOD: as water flows the energy is lost = heavy material is deposited on the bank 2) RIVER AT LOW FLOW: during dry spells the velocity slows down and the volume of water falls= deposition on the bed 3) AFTER REPEATED FLOODS: after many floods the river banks form levees and the bed may be raised= river rises above the flood plain and leads to more flooding
what is the definition of flooding? anything that increases surface run off = increase in discharge
human causes of flooding building houses on Greenfield sites= water can't soak into the ground ploughing= water runs faster through the channels that are created deforestation= water gets to the surface quicker (more likely to be saturated)
physical causes of flooding dry weather= heat bakes ground= water can't be soaked into soil heavy rainfall= more water in the ground steep slopes= water runs off before infiltration antecedent rainfall= surface is already saturated impermeable rock= water can't percolate into the ground snow melt= more water in the river
what would reduce the risk of flooding? afforestation improve drainage systems build on brownfield sites
what is this graph called? a flood hydrograph
what does peak rainfall mean? highest amount of rain
what does peak discharge mean? highest amount of discharge
what does falling limb mean? decreasing height of a river OR decreasing flood water in a river
what does rising limb mean? rising flood water in a river
what does the lag time mean? the time difference between the peak rainfall and peak discharge
what is hard engineering? structures that are imposed on a river. these are man made and disrupt the natural environment.
examples of hard engineering dams embankments channelization storage areas flood walls
what is soft engineering? these are methods that work with the river and use natural processes.
examples of soft engineering? afforestation warning systems land-use zoning washlands
what does water stress mean and what causes it? the amount of water doesn't meet the requirement. CAUSES: inadequate supply at a particular time may relate to the water quality
what does areas of deficit mean and what causes it? rain that falls doesn't provide enough water on a permanent basis in one Location CAUSES: shortages under certain conditions (long periods without rain)
what does areas of surplus mean and what causes it? areas that have more water than needed CAUSES: areas that receive high rainfall but have a small population
what places in the UK have a water surplus? North and West
what places in the UK have a water deficit? South and East
what is the case study for water transfer in the UK? Kielder Water, Northumberland
what are the advantages of Kielder Water? habitats have been protected (especially for red squirrels) 1/4 million visits a year an eco-village nearby uses the waste chips from the forestry process to power the village jobs were made during the construction phase and through the maintenance of the dam wall
what are the disadvantages of Keilder Water? 1.5 million trees were cut down to make reservoir an area of 'outstanding beauty' was flooded for the reservoir the dam stooped the migration of trout 7 families were rehoused as a result of flooding behind the dam
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