server midterm

Justo Juan Black
Flashcards by Justo Juan Black, updated more than 1 year ago
Justo Juan Black
Created by Justo Juan Black about 5 years ago
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server

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Question Answer
Which of the following are components of workload characterization the number of users expected to use the system, the expected response time of the system
A devices MTTR will give you an idea of______ How long a device may take to repair
An AFR of 500% means 5 failures per year
AFR – annualized failure rate
to estimate when the next failure on your system may occur it is wise to keep track of your devices MTBF
which of the following best describes the purpose of network management a signle point of control to monitor and manage a network system
whats is a backup catalog a database metadata
the three basic reasons for data back are disaster recovery, archival, compliance
how is a tape library different from a tape drive connected to a server a tape library consists of multiple tape drives plus an automated tape loading system
which of the following best describes deduplication a storage/backup feature that finds and deletes repetitive data
a differential backup contains only the files that have changed since the last full backup
what is the main advantage of a differencial backup over an incremental backup differential has faster recovery time
although tape backup is no longer commonly used in small companies, large entrepise still use tape libraries because tape gives you high density at low price
a syntetic full backup is created from which two of the following most recent full backup, most recent differential/incremental backup
when creating a baseline of a network or system it is always essential that you measure peak values as well as____ and ____ values current and average
monitoring of the network can be divided into basic categories monitoring and analysis of the network traffic and protocols, hardware platforms and opperatting systems and network archiecture
what are the four components of a disaster recovery plan emergency plan, backup plan, recovery plan, test plan
describe backup RPO (Recovery Point Objective) A point in time to which application data must be recovered in order to resume business transactions
describe backup RTO (Recovery Time Objective ) Maximum allowable time to bring the application back online.
Cloud backup Client agent watches specific folders/files for changes and automatically backs them up
describe cloud synched backup A folder or drive that looks local but is on the remote system
Retention Period The length of time that the backup software prevents the overwriting of a tape
Rotation Period The length of time that a particular backup set is retained on tape before it is overwritten by a new backup set.
The OSI network management model divides network management into five key areas Performance Management, Configuration Management, Accounting Management, Fault Management, Security Management
Performance Management Gather performance data on those variables of interest to network administrators. Analyze the data to determine normal (baseline) levels.
Configuration Management Automatic configuration data gathering. Records changes in the configuration, Identifies network components
Accounting Management Inform users of the costs thus far.Inform users of the expected costs in the future. Set cost limits
Fault Management Maintain and examine error logs. Detect, log and notify users
Security Management Identify sensitive network resources (including systems, files, and other entities).Determine mappings between sensitive network resources and user sets.
LAN Based Backups The Backup Server is the central control point for all backups, The metadata and backup policies reside in the Backup Server, Storage Nodes control backup devices and are controlled by the Backup Server
SAN Based Backups data is moved via a separate backup network or Fibre Channel SAN directly from disk to tape, only the main servers are connected to these fast and expensive networks
Which of the following are benefits of the Windows Volume Shadow Copy technology? "files are not skipped because they were in use activity such as file changes will not affect the backup"
Which of the following sets of data are contained in a Windows full server backup? "all server data applications system state"
After Windows does a full backup, it defaults to doing what kind of backup of the same data? incremental
You created three files, did a full backup, edited the three files and then did another backup (which was not a full backup).  You then recovered these files but only had to do one recover operation.  What did Windows have to do automatically to fully recover these files in thier final version? it uses full to restore check the changes with the incremental and changes them
What size of RAID 5 volume would be created if we used four 15G disks to create it? 45G
What does it say in the status column of the RAID volume while it is rebuilding? Resynching
When you reboot the Windows server after creating the mirrored partition, what is the second boot option called? Secondary Plex
What is the status of the C: volume in the disk management tool when you boot the Windows mirror after deleting the original system disk? Failed redundancy
What is the array size of your Openfiler 10 RAID array made from four 2G disks? 4G
What is the ID type for Linux RAID auto? fd
ROI – Return on investment "ROI = Average Benefit Over Three Years / Initial Cost amount of value received relative to the amount of money invested "
MTBF "mean time between failure Expected future performance based on past performance Usually calculated as (total actual operating time/total number of failures) "
Swapping "Move an entire process to disk to reclaim memory Next time the system runs the process it has to copy it from the disk swap space back into memory"
Paging "Move individual pages of process to the disk to reclaim memory The paging algorithm keeps track of when each page was last used and tries to keep pages that were used recently in memory "
Backup Metadata: Information about the backup data: File names, time of backup, size, permissions, ownership, tracking information
Backup Window The time customers have to back up their data, traditionally 6-8 hours in the evening or weekends,
Catalog: A metadata database maintained by the backup server.
Hot Backup: A backup performed while the application (e.g. Exchange, Oracle, SQL, etc.) is still running and providing services to end users. Performance on the application may be somewhat degraded during this operation
Differential Backup "Full backup made regularly but further apart than a full backup strategy Frequent – only files that have changed since the last FULL backup "
Incremental Backup Frequent – files that have changed since the last FULL OR INCREMENTAL backup
Synthetic Fulls created from the most recent full backup (i.e., standard or synthetic) and subsequent incremental and/or differential backups
Snapshots "Point in Time” images of live systems Usually a base image + differences "
: Continuous Data Protection: CDP "Backup system continuously track changes in data Usually a block-level function but can be file-level "
Replication "keep a second, synchronized copy of data on a separate system Synchronous technology does not acknowledge the write from the primary application until the block has been replicated to the target site. Primary and Secondary are identical Asynchronous replication acknowledges the write and then replicates that block over time"
HSM "Hierarchical Storage Management Use different types of storage media, (RAID, disk, tape) each representing a different level of cost and speed of retrieval when access is needed. "
Direct-Attached Backups "A tape drive is attached directly to the client Only metadata goes to the backup server, relieving pressure on the LAN, "
RAID Levels "0 Striped array with no fault tolerance 1 Disk mirroring Nested RAID (i.e., 1 + 0, 0 + 1, etc.) 3 Parallel access array with dedicated parity disk 4 Striped array with independent disks and a dedicated parity disk 5 Striped array with independent disks and distributed parity 6 Striped array with independent disks and dual distributed parity "
RAID 1: Disk mirroring is good for very fast read operations
RAID 3: "performs poorly when there are a lot of little requests for data, like dbs – performs well under applications that just want one long sequential data transfer like video servers"
RAID 5: preferred for messaging, data mining, medium-performance media serving and Relational database management systems in
RAID 6: RAID-6 is seen in environments, and solutions that require long data retention periods, such as data archiving, or disk-based backup
IOPS The most common measurement of a storage systems overall performance
Standard RAID penalties "RAID 0 Read penalty = 1 _ Write penalty = 1 RAID 1 and 10 Read penalty = 1 _ Write penalty = 2 RAID 5 Read penalty = 1 _ Write penalty = 4 RAID 6 Read penalty = 1 _ Write penalty = 6 "
Clustering Computers grouped together to provide transparent network resources to a that can be managed as a whole
High Performance Clustering (HPC) "Connect multiple nodes together to add resources Distributed computing different parts of a program run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network Parallel computing simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster "
Grid computing (similar to high performance clustering) "grids connect collections of computers which do not fully trust each other Use unused resources like disk space or cpu cycles"
High Availability Clustering (HA Clustering) two or more systems configured to monitor each other’s health and take action when a fault occurs
Failover Cluster increases availability If a node becomes unavailable another node can provide its service
Load Balancing increases scalability and availability each node is configured to provide the same service
Asymmetric Cluster Architecture "Also called active/passive clustering Failover Clustering is most common type of Asymmetric Clustering Primary node provides service to clients Secondary or Standby node is idle (can be a less efficient system than the primary) In the event of a failure, the standby server takes over handling all client requests"
Node Computer that is a member of the cluster
Primary Provides cluster resources to clients during normal operations
Secondary or Standby Provides cluster resources to clients during failure conditions
Quorum (witness) Configuration information for the cluster
Heartbeat A message sent between cluster nodes at regular intervals to determine node availability
Heartbeat network A private network used for heartbeat communication – no other traffic
Cluster Virtual Name or Network name Name used by clients to access the resources of the cluster
Cluster Virtual IP IP address used by clients to access the resources of the cluster
Resource Service provided by the cluster
Owner Node currently in control of the resources
Shared Database "Similar to a shared disk A set of web servers front ends a database server dynamic web content can be created from the shared database server"
Symmetric Cluster "Also called active/active Every server in the cluster performs active work If one server fails the other servers in the cluster continue processing client requests"
Load Balancing Cluster Algorithms "Round-robin. Weighted round-robin. Least-connection. Load-based. "
Round-robin. "distributes the load equally to each server, regardless of the current number of connections or the response time suitable when the servers in the cluster have equal processing capabilities; otherwise, some servers may receive more requests than they can process while others are using only part of their resources."
Weighted round-robin. "accounts for the different processing capabilities of each server. Administrators manually assign a performance weight to each server, and a scheduling sequence is generated "
Least-connection. sends requests to servers in a cluster, based on which server is currently serving the fewest connections.
Load-based. sends requests to servers in a cluster, based on which server currently has the lowest load.
Network/Server Management A single point of control to monitor and manage a networked system
Performance Management žISO's category for optimizing quality of service
Baseline Measuring the normal conditions of a Network or System through all stages of load
Fault Tolerance The term for preventing outages
ROI amount of value received relative to the amount of money invested
MTBF Average life span of a component
MTTR –The average amount of time that it takes to repair a component
AFR Yearly failure rate written as a percentage
HA Less than 8.8 hours of downtime per year
Workload Characterization –Number of User's a system can support and expected response time
Disaster Recovery Plan ža written plan describing the steps a company or individual would take to restore computer operations in the event of a disaster
RPO The point, to which applications must be recovered in order to get the business back online after a disaster
RTO Maximum allowable time to bring the applications (RPO) back online after a disaster
Backup Metadata Information about the backup data
Backup Catalogue A metadata database maintained by the backup server
Hot Backup A backup performed while the application is running
Differential only files that have changed since the last FULL backup
Incremental files that have changed since the last FULL OR INCREMENTAL backup
Synthetic full a full backup created on the backup device from full and incremental or differentials
Snapshots ž“Point in Time” images of live systems
CDP žBackup system continuously track changes in data
Replication žkeep a second, synchronized copy of data on a separate system
HSM žUse different types of storage media, (RAID, disk, tape) each representing a different level of cost and speed of retrieval when access is needed.
Deduplication find and delete duplicated on the storage system
SAN A network that moves storage data only, not client data
Rule 3-2-1 You should have at least 3 backup copies on a couple of different media with at least one of those copies offsite
Cloud Synched A backup folder or drive that looks local but is on the cloud
SAN backup architecture Backup data is moved via a separate network designed for storage only
Write penalty The number of extra operations it takes to perform a write on a RAID system
Disk IOPS Ÿ1 / (average latency in seconds + average seek time in seconds)
Multicast cluster MAC each host in the cluster retains it's own MAC address as well as the MAC address of the cluster
RAID 0 Striped array with no fault tolerance
RAID 3 RAID that performs well under applications that just want one long sequential data transfer like video servers
RAID 5 RAID that has a write penalty of 4
RAID 6 RAID that can withstand the loss of two disks
IOPS ŸThe most common measurement of a storage systems overall performance
Distributed Computer Clustering –different parts of a program run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network
Parallel Computer Clustering –simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster
Load Balancing each node in the cluster is configured to provide the same service
Quorum ›Configuration information for the cluster
Heartbeat ›A message sent between cluster nodes at regular intervals to determine node availability
Symmetric Cluster žEvery server in the cluster performs active work
Asymmetric Cluster žAlso called active/passive clustering
Round Robin cluster algorithm ›distributes the load equally to each server in the cluster, regardless of the current number of connections or the response time
Least-Connection cluster algorithm sends requests to servers in a cluster, based on which server is currently serving the fewest connections
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