Chapter 13 - Alkenes

Tom Mitchell
Flashcards by Tom Mitchell, updated more than 1 year ago
Tom Mitchell
Created by Tom Mitchell about 4 years ago
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A Level A Level Chemistry (Module 4 - Core Organic Chemistry) Flashcards on Chapter 13 - Alkenes, created by Tom Mitchell on 03/04/2016.
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Question Answer
What is an Alkene? An unsaturated hydrocarbon - contains one or more C=C double bond
What is the functional group? The C=C bond
What are 3 properties of Alkenes? Non-polar Immiscible with water Relatively low melting and boiling points
How is MP/BP affected by Mr/chain length? Why? Increases with increasing Mr due to stronger London forces from an increased count of electrons
What does the double bond in an alkene consist of? A sigma bond and a pi bond
What is a pi bond? The sideways overlapping of p orbitals above and below the plane of the carbon atoms
What is the shape and angle around the C=C atoms? Trigonal planar 120
What feature allows alkenes to exhibit stereoisomerism? Pi bond prevents free rotation
What are stereoisomers? Molecules that have the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space
What feature do dienes/trienes have? 2 C=C bonds 3 C=C bonds
What conditions must be met for E/Z isomerism? C=C bond Different groups attached to each carbon atom of the double bond
Is a cis isomer E or Z? Z
Is a trans isomer E or Z? E
How are atoms given priority in the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog nomenclature? Atomic Number
What change in structure makes alkenes much more reactive than alkanes? Pi - bond
Is a pi bond weaker or stronger than a sigma bond? Weaker
What is an addition reaction? Where two molecules combine to form a larger molecule with no other products
What temperature and catalyst is needed for the hydrogenation of an alkene? 423K Nickel catalyst
What catalyst is needed in the hydration of an alkene? Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
What is an electrophile? An atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron-rich centre and accepts an electron pair
What is the principle of Markownikoff's rule? That the hydrogen atom of the hydrogen halide will attach to the carbon with the greatest number of hydrogen atoms and smallest number of carbon atoms
What is the difference between primary, secondary and tertiary carbocations? Primary = 1 alkyl group, 2 hydrogen groups Secondary = 2 alkyl group, 1 hydrogen group Teriary = 3 alkyl group, 0 hydrogen groups
Name a way of recycling polymers Recycling PVC recycling Use waste polymers as fuel Feedstock recycling
What are photodegradable polymers? Polymers that contain bonds that are weakened by absorbing light to start degradation
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