Properties of The Alkanes

Bee Brittain
Flashcards by , created over 3 years ago

These are my 'Properties of the Alkanes' Flashcards which are based on my '12.1 Properties of the Alkanes' mind map. It is also based heavily on the A-Level Chemistry textbook for OCR and the OCR Chemistry A-Level Specification.

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Bee Brittain
Created by Bee Brittain over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
Oil refineries separate crude oil by what process? Fractional Distillation
Explain the process where crude oil Is separated Alkanes have different boiling points depending on how long their carbon chain is. After being vaporised, the crude oil enters a column where the temperature decreases and as the vaporised gases rise, they condense at different points due to their boiling and melting points, meaning that at different levels which are then filtered out through different columns
What happens to the boiling point as chain length increases? It increases
Alkanes are described as what? Saturated Hydrocarbons
What type of bonds are in an alkane? Single Covalent Bonds/Sigma bonds
Define the term: Covalent bond A covalent bond is where a pair of electrons are shared between to atoms
Due to the covalent bonds in an alkane, each C atom is surrounded by how many electron pairs? Four
The electron pairs around the C atom repel each other, what shape does this make around the carbon atom? And what bond angle is between the atoms? Shape: Tetrahedral Bond Angle : 109.5 degrees
What is the name of the force that alkanes have? Van de Waals / London Forces / Intermolecular Forces
The greater the van de Waal forces the greater the ________? Boiling Point
Where do London forces act? Between molecules with close urface contact
As the Alkane chain gets longer, so does the boiling point. Why? This is because the longer chains have more close surface contact, therefore meaning that there are more/larger Van der Waals forces and more energy is needed to break them = higher boiling point
Fill in the blank: Branched alkanes have ________ boiling points than straight chain alkanes. Lower/Higher Lower
Draw out pentane, 2-methylbutane and 2,2-Dimethylpropane. Label them with the highest boiling point and the lowest boiling point. Pentane = Highest 2,2-Dimethylpropane = Lowest
Name two examples of products you can get from fractional distillation. Petrochemicals and Fuel
What is the general formula of an alkane? CnH2n+2