# 209 Chapter 10 Definitions

Flashcards by zilkie8, updated more than 1 year ago
 Created by zilkie8 over 5 years ago
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### Description

Flashcards on 209 Chapter 10 Definitions, created by zilkie8 on 03/22/2016.

## Resource summary

 Question Answer The process of assigning numbers or values to individuals health status, objects, events or situations using a set of rules. Measurement Determining the value of concrete factors, such as weight, waist circumference, temperature, HR, BP and respirations. Direct Measures When researchers cannot directly measure an abstract idea, but they can capture some of its elements in their measurements. Indirect Measures The lowest of 4 measurement categories; it is used when data can be organized into categories of a defined property but the categories cannot be rank-ordered. Nominal- level Measurement Data are assigned to categories that can be ranked. Ordinal-Level Measurement Uses interval scales, which have equal numerical distances between intervals. Interval-Level Measurement The highest form of measurement and meets all the rules of other forms of measurement. Ratio-Level Measurement The ideal perfect measure. True Measure/Score The difference between the true measure and what is actually measured. Measurement Error The difference between the measured value and the true value is without pattern or direction (random). Random Measurement Error Measurement error that is not random; the variation in measurement values from the calculated average is primarily in the same direction. Systematic Measurement Error The consistency of a measurement method. Reliability A measure of the amount of random error in the measurement technique. Reliability Testing Concerned with the consistency of repeated measures of the same attribute with the use of the same scale or instrument. (Test- Retest reliability) Stability Involves the comparison of two versions of the same paper and pencil instrument or of two observers measuring the same event. Equivalence Comparison of two observers or two judges in a study. Interrater Reliability Comparison of two paper and pencil instruments. Alternate Forms Reliability A type of reliability testing used primarily with paper and pencil instruments or scales to address the correlation of each question to the other questions within the scale. Homogeneity A determination of how well the instrument reflects the abstract concept being examined. Validity Validity is considered a single broad method of measurement evaluation. Construct Validity Examines the extent to which the measurement method or scale includes all of the major elements or items relevant to the construct being measured. Content Validity Focuses on the study participants ability to read and comprehend the content of an instrument or scale. Readability Level Can be tested by identifying groups that are expected to have contrasting scores on an instrument. Evidence of Validity from Contrasting Groups Determined when a relatively new instrument is compared with an existing instrument that measures the same construct. Evidence of Validity from Convergence Measurement methods used to quantify the level of functioning of living beings. Physiological Measures Comparable to validity in that it addresses the extent to which the instrument measures what is supposed to measure in a study. Accuracy The degree of consistency or reproducibility of measurements made with physiological instruments. Precision Can be grouped into 5 categories: environment, user, subject, equipment, and interpretation. Error in Physiological Measures A test used to confirm a diagnosis is evaluated in terms of its ability to assess the presence or absence of a disease or condition correctly as compared with a gold standard. Accuracy of A Screening Test The most accurate means of currently diagnosing a particular disease and serves as a basis for comparison with newly developed diagnostic or screening test. Gold Standard An accurate identification of the presence of a disease. True Positive Indicates that a disease is present when it is not. False Positive Indicates accurately that a disease is not present. True Negative Indicates that a disease is not present when it is. False Negative The proportion of patients with the disease who have a positive test result or true positive. Sensitivity Good at identifying the disease in the patient. Highly Sensitive Test The proportion of patients without the disease who have a negative test result or true negative. Specifity Good at identifying the patients without a disease Highly Specific Test Involves an interaction between the study participants and observers in which the observer has the opportunity to watch the participant perform in a specific setting. Observational Measurement Spontaneously observing and recording what is seen in words. Unstructured Observations The researcher carefully defines what he or she will observe and how the observations are to be made, recorded and coded as numbers. Structured Observational Measurement Verbal communication between the researcher and subject during which the information is provided to the researcher. Interview The content is controlled by the study participant. Unstructured Interview The content is similar to that of a questionnaire, with the possible responses to questions carefully designed by the researcher. Structured Interview A self-report form designed to elicit information through written, verbal or electronic responses of the subject. Questionnaire A form of self-report, is a more precise means of measuring phenomena than a questionnaire. Scale The crudest form of measurement involving scaling technique; lists an ordered series of categories of a variable that are assumed to be based on an underlying continuum. Rating Scales Designed to determine the opinions or attitudes of study subjects; this scale contains a number of declarative statements, with a scale after each statement. Likert Scale Used to measure strength, magnitude, or intensity of individuals subjective feelings, sensations or attitudes about symptoms or situations. Visual Analog Scale The process of acquiring subjects and collecting the data for a study. Data Collection Data collected for reasons other than research. Administrative Data

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