MEDIA THEORIES

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media theories for A2 ocr exam
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MEDIA THEORIES A2 EXAM NARRATIVE
TODOROV 5 STATES 1. Equilibrium: All is in order, characters, setting and narrative introduced (Adoption Process) 2. Disruption: A problem occurs to disrupt the equilibrium (Noticing Esther may be different) 3. Recognition of Disruption: Something happens that tells the audience/characters there’s a problem. (Esther kills) 4. Attempt to repair: Try to fix the problem. Things in this stage are a consequence of the problem that has occurred earlier. (Chase sequences) 5. New Equilibrium: Problems are solved. A new equilibrium is built. Narrative end. (Ambiguous)
Story: full sequence of events unfolding in chronological time. (Both) Plot: What shown/seen on screen, essential key points of story (done to maximise effects) Linear: Everything runs in chronological order (Both) Non-linear: Time and events don’t occur from start to finish (flashbacks, ellipsis, enigma) (Fixation) Open Narrative: continuous narrative, plot can continue (Swindler) Closed Narrative: clear beginning, middle and end Strands - Single Plot: One narrative stand running throughout (Both) Double Plot: Two narrative stands Multiple Plot: Number of narrative strands Parallel: Number of plots unfolding at the same time, never interacting until the end Intertwined: Number of plots that weave in and out, ending bringing them all together
AUTEUR THEORY Film directors who are considered to have a distinctive and recognisable style. E.g. James Cameron – Terminator, Aliens, Titanic & Avatar = Strong female, distinctive males, action, disaster, freedom morals
CHARACTER: PROPP 8 CHARACTER TYPES (That apply) The Villain: Conflict with hero, stop them succeeding (The antagonist ‘Meredith’) The Hero: Leads narrative, trying to solve (The protagonist ‘Anna’) The Donor/Helper: Offers hero something to complete their quest (Person on phone)
MULVEY MALE GAZE Feminist film theorist - films give the male perspective onto women that objectify them. Females = the primary erotic image, making men more dominant
DISMEMBERMENT Sexual focus onto women, e.g. close ups (as if from male perspective)
FREUD FEAR OF CASTRATION That without the male character being enforced by the female, the male cannot be dominant
AUDIENCE Demographics: Income, age, gender, race, location Psychographics: Personality, values, opinions, lifestyle ----------------- Passive: Immediately accepts message without question Active: Question the message
HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY Developed in the 1920/30s after research into the effects of propaganda Passive audience – immediate persuasive effects Everyone accepts message without questioning it
Blumler & Katz Uses & Gratification Theory Personal Identity: Self-reflected in texts, learning behaviour and values (Adoption, see self as the protagonist) Informal: To be information and educated about the world (Thrillers, adoption, different lives) Entertainment Escape: Amuse us, escape to everyday problems and routines (Thrillers/films in general, thrillers = most different to real life) Social Interaction: Using media to interact, feeling close to the media/characters (Thrillers & enigmas allow audiences to communicate)
TWO STEP FLOW Leaders, audiences are more likely to believe and process information given to them by someone they trust. E.g. Celebrities - Was ruled out, until recent findings on twitter (Importance of social media, if friends share = more likely to consume)
INOCULATION THEORY Passive audience, argument that long term exposure makes audience immune to the message being shown to them - Less shocked, thriller and horrors are often blamed for case studies - Media used as scapegoat? - Thrillers = have to push boundaries to effect audience w/ tension = not be stereotypical
MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Physiological, safety, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, becomingness and self-actualisation - Most needed -> wants, need underneath to achieve the above (Cognitive – enigma, Aesthetic – need for art, Becomingness – feeling apart of the group)
SOCIO ECONOMIC GROUPS A: High Ranking e.g. manager or profession e.g. law B: Middle managers in companies or public services C: Junior managers or supervisors C2: Skilled manual workers D: Unskilled manual workers E: Unemployed / low income
LIFE STYLE CATEGORIES Drifters: Unsure of what they want Egoists: Get the most pleasure out of life Groupies: Want to be accepted by others Puritans: Want to feel they have done their duty Traditionalists: Wants everything to remain the same Trendies: Wants admiration from others in peer group
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