Thermal Physics

Jonas Schlicht
Flashcards by Jonas Schlicht, updated more than 1 year ago
Jonas Schlicht
Created by Jonas Schlicht over 4 years ago
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International Baccalaureate Physics (Thermal Physics) Flashcards on Thermal Physics, created by Jonas Schlicht on 04/06/2016.
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Question Answer
Absolute (Kelvin) Temperature Scale - lowest possible T = 0K - T(K) = t(°C) + 273
Average random kinetic energy of molecules average KE of a substance is proportional to the absolute T of a substance: 0.5mv2 = 2/3kT (k= Boltzmann constant)
Internal Energy (U) total random KE of the molecules of a system + total intermolecular potential (thermal) energy
Intermolecular Forces - are electromagnetic forces between any two molecules, - heating increases intermolecular potential energy, - ideal gases have no intermolecular forces
Heat, Q 'Energy in Transit' - energy that is transferred form one body to another due to a difference in T
Direction of Energy flow Heat is always transferred from a higher T region to a lower one.
Thermal Equilibrium two bodies are at the same T & no further energy transfer
Ideal gas - theoretical model - no intermolecular forces/potential energies - obeys equation pV=nRT at all P,V,T - real gases sometimes and roughly
mole S.I. unit for quantity 1 mole = 6.02x10^23 = Avogadros constant
molar mass mass of 1 mole in grams
Specific heat capacity, c energy required to change T of a unit mass by 1°C/1K
Specific Latent Heat, L energy required to change the phase of a unit mass at CONSTANT TEMP.
Change of phase occurs at specific, constant temperature
Pressure normal force per unit area: P=Fcosθ/A in Pa
Ideal gases Assumptions: - hard spheres of negligible volume - collisions are elastic - short collisions - only forces between them during contact - random movement at various speeds - obey laws of mechanics
Real gases - unlike ideal gases can liquify and solidify - always intermolecular forces - best approximation to ideal gas at low density (large volume, low pressure, moderate temperature)
Boiling - boiling: specific T and molecules leave from anywhere in the liquid - evaporating: any T and surface molecules only (increase T or surface area to increase evaporation) - faster molecules escape; slower left behind; average speed/KE decreases; temperature decreases
Ideal gas law pV=nRT
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