G481 Mechanics Definitions

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A complete list of definitions for OCR AS Physics A - G481 Mechanics.

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Question Answer
Scalar A quantity that has Magnitude only without direction Examples: Length, area, volume, distance, speed, mass, density, pressure, temperature, energy, work, power, electrical potential, charge, time.
Vector A quantity that has (both) magnitude / size and direction Examples: Displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force (lift, drag, thrust, weight), field(s), a.c. voltage, current (when calculating fields only).
Displacement (Net) distance moved in a particular direction.
Instantaneous speed Speed measured between two point a very small time apart.
Average speed Distance covered / time taken.
Velocity Speed in a given direction - the rate of change of distance.
Acceleration The rate of change of velocity/The gradient of a velocity vs time graph. (= change in velocity / time taken).
The Newton The (net) force which gives a mass of 1kg an acceleration of 1 ms-2.
Torque of a Couple One of forces × perpendicular distance (between forces) (Not force x perpendicular distance).
Moment of a force Moment = force x perpendicular distance from pivot / axis / point.
Thinking Distance The distance travelled (by the car) from when the driver sees a problem and the brakes are applied.
Braking Distance The distance travelled (by the car) whilst the brakes are applied and the car stops (wtte).
Stopping Distance Stopping distance: Thinking distance + braking distance.
Work done by a Force Work done = force x distance moved / travelled in the direction of the force.
Joule Energy required to move a weight of 1N (through) a distance of 1 m.
Power - rate of work done Power = work (done)/time or power = energy/time or power = rate of work done.
Watt Power required to move 1N through a distance of 1m in 1 sec (Rate of doing work).
Stress Force/(cross-sectional) area.
Strain Extension/original length.
Young's Modulus Stress/strain. Young modulus is equal to the gradient from stress-strain graph (in the linear region).
Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) Ultimate tensile strength = Maximum stress material can withstand (before fracture).
Elastic Deformation Extension (or compression) force (as long as elastic limit is not exceeded).
Plastic Deformation Material does not return to original length / shape/ size (is permanently deformed / longer) when the force / stress is removed.
Density Mass/volume or mass per (unit) volume.
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