EN1010 Approaches to Text

Laura Sarah
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Laura Sarah
Created by Laura Sarah over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
Personification gives human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals or ideas. E.g. opportunity knocked on the door
Hyperbole an outrageous exaggeration that emphasises a point. They can be added to fiction to add colour and depth to a character. e.g. using an apple to represent education.
Alliteration The repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words. Example: "Fetched fresh, as I suppose, off some sweet wood."
Onomatopeia is a sound device. It uses the words that sound like their meaning, or mimic sounds. e.g. the burning wood hissed and crackled.
Simile compares 2 things using like and as. e.g. busy as a bee.
Metaphor A comparison that is made directly or less directly, but in any case without pointing out a similarity by using words such as “like,” “as,” or “than.”
Assonance resemblense of sound between syllables of nearby words, from the rhyming of 2 or more stressed vowels but NOT consonants. e.g. killed, cold, culled.
Apostrophe is a figure of speech sometimes represented by "o". A writer using an apostrophe detaches himself from the reality and addresses an imaginary character in his speech.
Allusion enables writers or poets to simplify complex ideas and emotions. The reader comprehends the complex ideas by comparing emotions of the reader to the references given by them.
Sibilance It is used as a stylistic device and sibilants are used more than twice in quick succession. (hissing sounds)
Intertextuality the inter relationships between texts, the way similar or related texts influence, reflect or differ from each other.
Anaphora repetition of the same word/ a series of words at the beginning of successive lines.
P.O.V (Point of View) The mode of narration that an author employs to let the readers 'hear' and 'see' what takes place in a story, poem, essay etc.
First Person P.O.V uses either of the 2 pronouns 'I' and 'we'. e.g. I felt like I was getting drowned with shame and disgrace.
Second Person P.O.V Uses the pronoun 'You'. e.g. sometimes you cannot clearly discern between anger and frustration.
Third Person P.O.V Uses pronouns like 'he', 'she', 'it', 'they' or a name. e.g. Mr Stewart is a principled man. He acts by the book and never lets you deceive him easily.
Narrative is a report of related events presented to the listener or readers in words arranged in a logical sequence. A story is taken as a synonym of a narrative.
Function of Narrative A narrative is set in specific cultural contexts. Readers can get a deep insight of that culture and develop an understanding towards it.
Prose 1. most everyday writing is in prose. 2. the language is typically straightforward 3. ideas are contained in sentences, arranged in paragraphs 4. there are no line breaks, sentences run straight to the margin 5 looks like large blocks of words
Poetry 1. reserved for expressing something special in an artistic way 2. Uses comparisons, rhyme and rhythm 3. uses stanzas not sentences 4. first letter of the line is usually capitalised 5. Shape/structure can vary
Figurative Language is language that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is different from the literal interpretation. When a writer uses literal language they are simply stating the facts as they are.
Literature written works, especially those considered of superior or long lasting artistic merit
Focalisation a narrative where all info presented reflects the subjective perception of a character.
reliability a quality of some fictional narratives whose word the reader can trust.
S L I M E S - Structure L - Language I - Imagery M - Meaning E - Effect
F L I R T S Form Form/ Structure Can you make any comments on the way the poem looks on the page? Does each stanza (paragraph) tell you something different?
F L I R T Language Language What examples of interesting language can you find? (persuasive language, emotive language, short or long sentences)
F L I R T Imagery Imagery How does the poet paint images in the reader’s mind? Can you find examples of metaphors, adjectives, adverbs, similes, personification.
F L I R T Rhythm / rhyme Rhythm / rhyme Does the poem have a rhythm? Do any of the words rhyme? Can you find any examples of alliteration or onomatopoeia?
F L I R T Theme / topic Theme/ topic How would you describe the main ideas or message of the poem? What is it trying to tell the reader?
Binary opposition Binary opposition is the system by which, in language and thought, two theoretical opposites are strictly defined and set off against one another. It is the contrast between two mutually exclusive terms, such as on and off.
Nature Vs Nurture Nature: a persons development is predisposed in DNA Nurture: a persons development is influenced by life experiences and environment
Socialisation The act of adapting behaviour to the norms of a culture or society.
Essentialism The belief or presumption that people, cultures or literature each possess an ‘essence’, that is, a core, defining and unchanging quality or set of qualities.
Psychoanalysis (Feminine) It maintains that gender is not biological but is based on the psycho-sexual development of the individual, but also that sexual difference and gender are different notions. (Freud)
Feminist Criticism It can be understood as using feminist principles and ideological discourses to critique the language of Lit, its structure and being. May also study stereotypes, creativity, ideology, racial issues and marginality.
Queer Theory insists that all sexual behaviours, all concepts linking sexual behaviours to sexual IDs and all categories of normative and deviant sexualities are social constructs which create certain types of social meaning.
Oedipus Complex The complex of emotions aroused in a young child (around 4 y.o.a) by an unconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and the wish to exclude the parent of the same sex.
Freudian Slip an unintentional error regarded as revealing subconscious feelings
Freud's Iceberg d0eb032a-846a-4910-ba64-7ed2e33183fa.jpg (image/jpg)
SLIME Structure How is the poem structured? Does it have a conventional structure such as sonnet, or an ode? Does it have stanzas with a regular number of lines, or any other interesting features of structural design?
SLIME Language Is the language appropriate to subject and/or theme? What effect does the language have on the poem’s achievement?
SLIME Imagery Are there any striking examples of similes, metaphors, personifications or symbols in the poem? What is their effect?
SLIME Meaning What is the poem about? Does it have a message? What is the poet discussing? Is there an overall theme/idea in the poem?
SLIME Effect What is the effect of the poem? What does the poem make you feel think about? What opinion does it show about the subject? What is the poet trying to say about their subject?
Marxism In its simplest form, Marxist criticism attempts to show the relationship between literature and the social.
Metaphysical Poets A group of 17th-century poets whose works are marked by philosophical exploration, colloquial diction, ingenious conceits, irony, and metrically flexible lines.
Meter The rhythmical pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in verse.
Rhyme The repetition of syllables, typically at the end of a verse line. Rhymed words conventionally share all sounds following the word’s last stressed syllable.
Rhyme Scheme A rhyme scheme is usually the pattern of end rhymes in a stanza, with each rhyme encoded by a letter of the alphabet, from a onward (ABBA BCCB, for example). Rhymes are classified by the degree of similarity between sounds within words, and by their placement within the lines or stanzas.
Feminist Theory feminist theory combines elements of other theoretical models such as psychoanalysis, Marxism, poststructuralism, and deconstruction to interrogate the role of gender in the writing, interpretation, and dissemination of literary texts.
Imagery Elements of a poem that invoke any of the five senses to create a set of mental images. Specifically, using vivid or figurative language to represent ideas, objects, or actions.
Irony Irony implies a distance between what is said and what is meant. Based on the context, the reader is able to see the implied meaning in spite of the contradiction.
Symbol Something in the world of the senses, including an action, that reveals or is a sign for something else, often abstract or otherworldly. A rose, for example, has long been considered a symbol of love and affection.
Tone The poet’s attitude toward the poem’s speaker, reader, and subject matter, as interpreted by the reader. Often described as a “mood” that pervades the experience of reading the poem, it is created by the poem’s vocabulary, metrical regularity or irregularity, syntax, use of figurative language, and rhyme.