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A-Level Psychology (Aggression) Flashcards on Aggression. AQA PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 3. A2, created by isabellelockwood on 03/05/2016.

Created by isabellelockwood over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
Deindividuation 981ee53f-761c-426e-b93e-2cb1c5ad7db7.jpeg (image/jpeg) Based on the crowd theory. In a crowd, a combination of anonymity, suggestibility and contagion mean a collective mindset takes possession of an individual.
Theory (AO1) Psychological state characterised by lowered self evaluation. When a person is part of a group they lose their own moral inhibitions. This is often characterised by lack of private self awareness and lack of public self awareness. Lack of private self awareness is where the person loses their own values and sense of identity within a crowd. Lack of public self awareness is where a person obtains a mindset of "everyone else is doing it so nobody will judge me any differently for doing it". They lose the fear of being judged by others for going against social norms.
Research (AO2) Zimbardo- 4 female undergraduates. Half wore bulky lab coats with no names and sat in separate rooms. Others wore their own clothes and had name tags and were sat in same room. Deindividuated group shocks learner for twice as long as the control group. This supports the theory as it demonstrates how the greater that anonymity, the more aggressive people are likely to become. Rehm et al - Tested German school children via non participant observation. Found the students playing in orange shirts played more aggressively than children in normal clothes. This may be due to the fact the children in orange bibs were less able to be identified and the anonymity caused them to act more aggressively and therefore supports the theory.
Methodological Evaluation Weakness of Rehm at al- Observations are not a scientific measurement. The data collected is very subjective and can be influenced by researcher bias as they would possibly be more likely to realise the aggressive acts conducted by the experimental group as this is what they expect.
IDA Real World Applications - With this knowledge we can adapt our security. One example of this is CCTV and mounted police at football games. By breaking the crowd up- they are less likely to be involved in aggressive acts.
Next... Institutional Aggression 2927a814-d528-4184-b79b-601a27dce406.jpeg (image/jpeg) X
Institutional Aggression b96e4ba3-f09a-4a48-93cb-866221292777.jpeg (image/jpeg) X
AO1 Theory The Importation Model Prisoners bring their own personal histories and traits with them into prisons. This influences their adaptation to the prison environment. Prisoners are not "blank slates" when they enter prison. Many of the normative systems developed on the outside will be "imported" into the prison. The Deprivation Model Prisoner or patient aggression is due to the stressful and oppressive conditions in the institution itself. E.g. Crowding. Hazing A form of institutional bullying based on tradition with many groups to discipline junior members and maintain a strict pecking order.
Research (AO2) Harer & Steffensmeier Collected data from 58 US prisons and found black inmates had higher rates of violent behaviour but lower rate of alcohol and drug related abuse than white inmates. This supports the theory as these patterns parallel racial differences in crime in US society at the time. McCorkle et al Found overcrowding, lack of privacy and lack of meaningful activity all significantly influenced peer violence. This supports the deprivation theory Nijman et al Found increased personal space did not decrease the level of violent incidents among patients. This weakens the theory as it contradicts the deprivation theory. McCorkle Found domination of the weak in prisons was a way of getting or maintaining status.
Methodological Evaluation "Hazing" is hard to define. Survey of US students found 1 in 5 reported they had experienced behaviour like hazing but only 1 in 20 regarded themselves as being hazed. Many people may just put it down to having fun.
IDA Needs to be combined with the biological view. Maybe people are more likely to be subject to hazing if they have low levels of testosterone and are seen as "weak". Etc. This makes it reductionist.
Next is... Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression a5791e67-9905-4525-8654-580cb63b2b6b.jpeg (image/jpeg) X