P1 Edexcel Core

Mr M Liddle
Flashcards by Mr M Liddle, updated more than 1 year ago
Mr M Liddle
Created by Mr M Liddle almost 4 years ago


Key recall for Edexcel P1

Resource summary

Question Answer
Describe the term efficiency Business Efficiency (image/jpeg) Efficiency is the proportion of energy transferred to useful forms
Explain the condition needed for something to keep at a constant temperature The average power absorbed = the average power radiated Equilibrium 005 (image/jpeg)
Explain how an electric current is induced by a magnet and wire Movement so the wire cuts the magnetic field lines, which induces a voltage, which induces a current A7 Jk78 (image/gif)
Describe Galileo's observations and explain how they changed our ideas of the universe Galileojupitermoons (image/gif) Galileo saw 4 moons orbiting Jupiter. This disproved the geocentric theory because it showed that not everything orbited the Earth
Recall the life cycle of a star the similar in mass to our sun Thesun (image/jpeg) Nebula -> Main Sequence -> Red Giant -> White Dwarf -> Black Dwarf
Recall the life cycle of a star with a greater mass then our sun 16992184 130616 2041 43 (image/png) Nebula -> Main Sequence -> Super Red Giant -> Supernova -> Black hole or Neutron star
Describe how potential danger is related to the frequency of a wave Frequency1 (image/png) As the frequency of a wave increases its potential danger also increases
Explain how to measure the focal length of a lens Measure the distance between the focal point and the lens 39722b00adb8cec6e3041cc0bf806eb8349d07dc (image/gif)
Describe what happens to all waves at a boundary between different materials The waves are refracted and reflected Reflect Refract (image/png)
Recall what ionising radiations are emitted by Ionising radiations are emitted by radioactive sources
Describe the term redshift Redshift is the increase in wavelength of light of an object moving away from the observer
Describe the terms current and voltage Current is the rate of flow of charge/flow of electrons and voltage is the electrical pressure/measure of energy transferred
Describe what all waves do and do not transfer All waves transfer information and energy but do not transfer matter
Describe the dangers of microwave, infra-red and ultraviolet radiation Microwave: internal heating of body cells. Infra-red: skin burns. Ultraviolet: damage to surface cells and eyes, leading to skin cancer and eye conditions.
State the people discovered IR and UV and describe their experiment Herschel discovers IR using thermometers that showed a greater temperature rise beyond the red end of the spectrum. Ritter discovered UV using silver chloride paper that turned black quickest beyond the violet end of the spectrum
Recall the shared properties of all EM waves All EM waves are transverse and travel and the same speed in a vacuum
Explain why waves refract at a boundary between different materials The waves change speed because they move into a more dense or less dense material
State the evidence that supports the big bang theory The big bang theory is supported by redshift and the CMBR (cosmic microwave background radiation
Explain why some telescopes are located outside the earths atmosphere No absorption of light by the atmosphere and no light pollution/cloud cover
Describe the three advantages of modern telescopes They use other parts of the EM spectrum, they can be connected to computers to store large amount of data, they have a larger magnification to view faint objects
Explain how a main sequence star is formed from a nebula Nebula is pulled in by gravity. The temperature increases until it is hot enough to fuse hydrogen to helium
State what causes the motion of tectonic plates Convection currents in the mantle
Describe the terms ultrasound and infrasound Ultrasound are sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hz. Infra-sound are sound wave with frequencies below 20 Hz
Explain why step-up transformers are used in the transmission of electricity The step-up transformer increase the voltage of electricity. This lowers the current and reduces heat lost in the power lines which increases the efficiency of energy transmission
Describe how to calculate payback times Payback time = Total cost / savings per year
List the waves of the electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing frequency/decreasing wavelength Radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet x-rays, gamma rays
Explain why the Big Bang theory is more accepted then the steady state theory The Big Bang theory is supported by both redshift and the CMBR where as the steady state theory is only supported by redshift
Describe law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed
Explain how data from seismometers can be used to identify the location of an earthquake Arrival of the P-wave and S-wave is timed, distance of the earthquake is calculated using time difference between the two waves, information from three seismometers is used to pinpoint the earthquake (triangulation).
Explain how earthquakes are caused at plate boundaries Convection currents in the mantle move the tectonic plates. Friction causes pressure to build up between the plate. Sudden movement (jolt/jerk/slip) of the plates releases energy causing an earthquake
Describe the term Power and state its units Power is the energy transferred per second and it is measured in watts
State how scientists use waves to find out information about our Universe Using the naked eye, photography and telescopes.
Define the term amplitude Amplitude = distance from the baseline of zero displacement to the point of maximum displacement (to top of crest or to bottom of trough)
Define the term wavelength One wavelength (m) = distance of one complete cycle or oscillation = horizontal distance from any point on the wave until where it begins to repeat = distance between two crests = distance between two troughs
Define the term frequency Frequency of a wave (Hz) = number of complete cycles/oscillations per second = number of complete waves passing a given point per second.
Describe the differences between longitudinal and transverse waves Transverse wave the oscillations are perpendicular (at 90 degrees) to the direction of energy transfer, but in a longitudinal wave the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer
Identify sound, electromagnetic and seismic waves as transverse or longitudinal. Electromagnetic waves - transverse only Sound waves - longitudinal only Seismic waves - can be of both types of wave
State the order of the visible spectrum red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet (Roy G. Biv)
Describe some uses of radiowaves radio waves: broadcasting, communications and satellite transmissions
Describe some uses of microwaves microwaves: cooking, communications and satellite transmissions
Describe some uses of infrared infra-red: including cooking, thermal imaging, short range communications, optical fibres, television remote controls and security systems
Describe some uses of visible light visible light: including vision, photography and illumination
Describe some uses of ultraviolet ultraviolet: including security marking, fluorescent lamps, detecting forged bank notes and disinfecting water
Describe some uses of x-rays X-rays: including observing the internal structure of objects, airport security scanners and medical X-rays
Describe some uses of gamma rays gamma rays: including sterilising food and medical equipment, and the detection of cancer and its treatment
State ionising radiation from the nucleus of an atom Ionising radiation includes alpha and beta particles and gamma rays.
State the name of the galaxy that the Solar System is part of the Solar System is part of the Milky Way galaxy
Define a galaxy A galaxy is a collection of stars
Define the Universe The Universe includes all of the galaxies
Describe the methods used to gather evidence for life beyond Earth Space probes, soil experiments by lunar/planetary landers and Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
Explain what is meant by the CMBR (cosmic microwave background radiation) The CMBR (cosmic microwave background radiation) is the energy remnant left over from the big bang.
Explain why the red-shift of galaxies provides evidence for the Universe expanding Red-shift tells us that galaxies are moving away. Almost all galaxies show red shift, which means that they are all moving away. This tells us the universe must be expanding
Describe some uses of ultrasound a) sonar b) communication between animals c) foetal scanning
Describe uses of infrasound a) communication between animals b) detection of animal movement in remote locations c) detection of volcanic eruptions and meteors
State two ways that seismic waves are generated Seismic waves are generated by earthquakes or explosions
Explain why scientists find it difficult to predict earthquakes and tsunami waves even with available data. We do not know when the tectonic plates will slip, making earthquakes and tsunamis unpredictable.
Describe the factors that affect the size of an induced current a) stronger magnet b) faster spinning/movement c) more turns on the coil of wire
State the main forms of energy thermal (heat), light, electrical, sound, kinetic (movement), chemical, nuclear, potential (elastic), potential (gravitational).
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