The Urban Environment

Sarah Mercer
Flashcards by Sarah Mercer, updated more than 1 year ago
Sarah Mercer
Created by Sarah Mercer over 4 years ago
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Flashcards on The Urban Environment, created by Sarah Mercer on 05/16/2016.

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The Urban Environment Unit 2
2.1 = Living in an increasingly urban world. Case study = China. Urbanisation is the percentage of people living in towns and cities. This is increasing due to push and pull factors in cities. It is directly linked to economic development. China is the country with the highest urbanisation rate in the world as it has had a large increase in the economy.
2.2 = Environmental hazards in urban areas. Case study = Los Angeles. Los Angeles in America has a thick layer of photochemical smog hanging over it. Photochemical smog is when car fumes react with the sunlight. This smog causes serious health issues such as bronchitis. These issues can be resolved by having traffic free cities, bus systems etc.
2.4 = Reducing deprivation in Urban areas in more developed countries. Case Study = Nightingale Estate, Hackney. Areas can quite easily become deprived. The Nightingale Estate in Hackney was a very deprived area but a regeneration scheme meant that the area was made socially, economically and environmentally better. For example, a new play area was built as well as new houses, litter collection etc.
2.5 Urban redevelopment and regeneration. Case Study = Brindleyplace, Birmingham. Brindleyplace was an barea of derelict canalside warehouses and disused factories. It was redeveloped to create a mixed use residential area. The area includes a National Indoor centre and a residential area.
2.6 = Managing Movement in Urban areas. Case Study = Curitiba's Bus Rapid Transport system. There is a large amount of traffic in Urban areas. Curitiba was the first area to have bus lanes as its intergrated transport system. It has: -Direct line buses (direct to city centre) -Speedy buses (main routes into city and few stops) -Inter-district buses (joins up the districts)
2.7 = Urban growth in developing countries - challenges Case Study = Mumbai, Nairobi and Dharavi. Mumbai is one of the fastest growing cities. Half the population live in shacks and slums with no access to proper sanitation or water. There is a high levels of air pollution which cause serious health issues. In Nairobi the slum owners could be kicked out at any time as they don't own the land. There is rubbish everywhere and vermin spread disease.
2.7 = Urban growth in developing countries - opportunities Case Study = Mumbai, Nairobi and Dharavi. Living in slums can be beneficial in some ways. It gives more job opportunities for people so they can work in sweat shops, as tour guides, street sellers etc. It is more likely for someone to get access to clean water and sanitation if they live in a slum area. In Dharavi there are community groups as well as job opportunities.
2.8 = Responding to the challenges of urban growth in developing countries. Case study = Curitiba, Brazil. In Curitiba there are many self help schemes which mean that the quality of houses are improved. The city council bought a large amount of land and supplied it with basic services. People who live there get an hour with an architect to plan the homes and loans are given so that the homes are built quickly.
2.9 = Britain's first zero energy urban development - BEDZED. Case study = BEDZED, London. BEDZED is a completely environmentally friendly urban area in London. It uses efficient appliances, solar power, renewable materials, self-sufficient heating and power and low energy consumption. The area has a children's nursery, meeting rooms and much much more.
2.10 = Sustainable urban living - The Greenhouse development. Case study = The Greenhouse Development, Leeds. The Greenhouse Development is an urban redevelopment in Leeds. The development will have 172 eco-homes. There will be recreational activities (sports centre) as well as offices and farming areas. The cars will also be powered by renewable energy and every home will have cycle storage.
2.11 = Improving urban environments. Case study = Singapore River and Kallang Basin. The Singapore River and Kallang Basin used to be described as 'a black, foul-smelling waterway devoid of any aquatic life.' This was because: -raw sewage flowed into the river -the river basin was a dumping ground. -chemical pollution from heavy industry
2.11 (continued) = Improving urban environments. Case study = Singapore River and Kallang Basin. To improve the area squatter settlements were moved to proper residential areas, industries had strict pollution controls and chicken and pig farms were moved away from the river. Riverside walkways and parks were built and thousands of trees were planted. a national stadium and leisure developments were also built.
2.11 (continued again) = Improving urban environments. Case study = Rooftop gardens, Chicago. Greening urban areas is about increasing the amount of green space in town and cities. This can be done by creating rooftop gardens, planting trees by roads and railways and developing parks and open spaces. These reduce noise pollution, absorb excessive heat and they help to reduce urban flooding.
2.12 = Britain's eco-towns. Case Study = Hanham Hall, Bristol. Hanham Hall is the plan that an eco town will be built in the place of a disused hospital. The area will have a community of 200 homes with the following features: -local shops and restaurants -local shops and a community hall -a car sharing club -bicycle storage facilities -powered by biomass -recycling and green spaces etc.
2.13 = Cities for the 21st century. Case Study = Dongtan, China. Dongtan is the plan for a sustainable city in China. It will have a harbour and a lake to make the area more environmentally friendly. Homes will be powered bywind turbines, the cars will either be water power or hydrogen powered to avoid air pollution. The whole city will be completely sustainable.
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