Molecular Genetic

enrique.salanic
Flashcards by enrique.salanic, updated more than 1 year ago
enrique.salanic
Created by enrique.salanic almost 6 years ago
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DNA discovery and bases
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Question Answer
Gene 1) Basic unit of heredity 2) part of DNA sequence that codes for polypeptide (protein) or RNA 3) genes code for traits
Allele 1) different version of genes 2) code for different version of the trait 3) alleles are differences in DNA sequence in the gene
Diploid They have two alleles (2 copies of each gene) one on each chromosome but not necessarily 2 different alleles
Central dogma? how does info flow? DNA-(translation)-> RNA -(transcription)-> protein
What qualities does the heritable material need? 1)Must contain info about organism (in stable form) 2)Must be able to replicate (accurately) 3)Must be able to occasionally change (for adaptation, variation and evolution)
Bacteriophage Virus that attacks bateria
Explain the basis of Hershey and Chase bacteriophage experiment 1) T2 phage is only protein and DNA 2) Use of radioactively labeled (S) and phosphorous (P) 3) DNA has P but no S 4)Protein has S but not P 5)Radioactive label allows detection of element 6) Allow phage time to inject DNA into bacterial cells 7) Spin down cells so phage "shell" remains supernatant with genetic material inside any cells 8)Supernatant (80% S) and pellet (65% P)
Composition of DNA and RNA Nucleotides
Name the two types of nucleotides Purines and Pyrimidines
Name the purines and pyrimidines Purines (Adenine and Guanine) and pyrimidines (Cytosine and Thymine) *Uracil replaces T in RNA
What does all nucleotides have? 1) 5-C (pentose) sugar 2) nitrogenous base (aka base) purine OR pyrimidine 3)Phosphate group (if just sugar + base= nucleoside)
Name the respective pentose sugar for RNA and DNA For RNA is ribose (with an OH at 2'-C) and for DNA is deoxyribose (with an H at 2'-C
Describe the composition of DNA chain Phosphodiester bonds link phosphate group attached to 5'-C of one nucleotide's sugar to 3'-C of next nucleotide's sugar
General characteristic of a DNA chain Phosphodiester bonds are strong and the backbone of altering sugar and phosphate. REMEMBER: polarity is from 5' end to 3' end
Difference between a nucleoside and a nucleoside phosphate 1) A nucleoside only has the sugar and the base (no P group) 2) a nucleoside phosphate is a mono-, di- or triphosphate (1, 2, or 3 P groups); a nucleotide is an example of a nucleoside phosphate
Chargaff's Rule 1) The base composition of DNA varies (variation in DNA sequence ir a required for heredity) species 2) The same species always has the same DNA composition 3)There is a rough equivalence of purines and pyrimidines 4) by % composition of DNA, A=T and G=C
People involved in the determination of the DNA structure Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins
What the famous Franklin's picture allowed her to do? Allow her to deduce double helix structure, determine size of molecule, determine sugar/phosphate outside, base inside
Watson&Crick and Franklin&Wilkins Watson&Crick did not do any experiment but collected data such as Franklin's picture. Watson&Crick created the model of double helix and determine the antiparallel strand (5' end aligned to other 3' end)
What did the Watson & Crick model showed? 1) a sugar/phosphate outside, base inside 2) H bonds binds A & T (2 H bonds), C & G (3 H bonds) of each strand 3) A always pairs with T and C with G 4) Model fits physical space and follows Chargoff's rules
Name and describe the hypothesis of replication 1) semicoservative (!!!): each daughter molecule keeps one parental strand 2) Conservative: parental strands ether and an entire new daughter strand 3) Dispersive: Parental strand in chunks mixed with daughter strands
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