Biology 11.4 Meiosis

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Flashcards on Biology 11.4 Meiosis, created by Isi on 03/05/2014.

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Question Answer
Where are the instructions of each trait found? Chromosomes
Where are chromosomes found? In the nuclei of cells
The DNA on chromosomes is arranged in sections that control the production of __________ Proteins
What are the DNA sections called? Genes
Each chromosome has about how many genes? 1500
How many chromosomes does the human body have? 46
How many chromosomes do you get from your father and how many from your mother? 23 from each
Do chromosomes come in pairs? yes or no yes
About how many genes do humans have? If you have 46 chromosomes, and each chromosome has about 1500 genes. Then 46x1500=
The chromosomes that make up a pair, one from each parent, are called what? Homologous chromosomes
Fill in the blank: Homologous chromosomes are the same _____ and have the centromere in _____ place. length and same
The homologous chromomoses also carry _____ for the same traits at the same time. Genes
Homologous chromosomes are similar but not Identical
The number of chromosomes does or does not change from generation to generation. Does not. You have the same number of chromosomes as your parents.
What are Gametes? Sex cells
Gametes have half the number of chromosomes to ensure that chromosome numbers stays the same. True or false. True.
The symbol n represents the number of chromosomes. In humans n=23
A cell with n number of chromosomes is called a? Haploid
Gametes are what type of cells? Haploid
The process in which one haploid gamete joins with another haploid gamete is called? Fertilization
After fertilization, the cell has ____n chromomoses. 2n
After fertilization, the cell has 2n chromosomes- n chromosome from the ______parent plus n chromosome from the _____parent. Female and Male
what is a cell with 2n chromosome called? A diploid cell
During mitosis, the chromosome cells stays the same or change. which one? Stays the same.
Because sex cells need half the number of chromosomes, a differnt process of cell division is needed. what is the process called? Meiosis
What is the process of cell division called that reduces the number of chromosomes by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes? Meiosis
Where does meiosis take place? In the reproductive organs of plans and animals.
During meiosis there are two cell divisions. What are they? Meiosis I and Meiosis II
Before a cell goes through meiosis it goes through? Interphase I
What happens to a cell during interphase I? A cell in interphase carries out a variety of metabolic functions, copies DNA, and makes proteins.
Meiosis I begins with? Phophase I
What happens during prophase I? Chromosomes are replicated, consisting of two sister chromatids. Then the chromosomes become visible under the light of a microscope.
In prophase I the cells begin to form homologous pairs in a process called? Synapsis
During synapsis, the chromosomes often swap pieces of DNA. This process is called? Crossing over. Crossing over leads to genetic diversity.
How does crossing over occur? This is when one section of chromosome changes place with a section of its homologous chromosome.
During crossing over, where do the centrioles mover to? To the opposite poles of the cell
What happens during metaphase I? The pairs of homologous chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
What happens during anaphase I? Each homologous chromosome is guided by the spindle fibers toward opposite poles of the cell. At this time the chromosome numbers are reduced from 2n to n.
During meiosis I, do the sister chromatids split? yes or no No.
What is the final stage of Meiosis I? Telophase i
What happens during telophase i? The homologous chromosomes reach opposite poles of the cell.
At the end of telophase I the cell under goes what? Cytokinesis
What is cytokinesis? The division of the cell into two.
Is the DNA copied during interphase? No.
What are the phases of meiosis I 1.Interphase 2. Prophase I 3.Metaphase I 4. Anaphase I 5. Telaphase I
Now that meiosis I is complete, to complete meiosis, the cell must now undergo? Meiosis II
What events occur during meiosis II? Metaphase II- haploid chromosomes line up near the center of cell by spindle fibers Anaphase II-sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromeres Telophase II- chromosomes reac the poles Cytokenisis, or cell division occurs
What is the results of meiosis? The results is four haploid cells, each with n number of chromosomes
Name the phases of Meiosis II. Phropase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Final Product
What is the major difference between mitosis and meiosis? Mitosis produces two identical diploid daughter cells, while meiosis produces four different haploid daughter cells
Number of cell divisions in mitosis is? one
Number of cell divisions in meiosis is? two
synapsis of homologous chromosomes in mitosis does or does not occur? does not occur
sypnasis of homologous chromosomess in meiosis does or does not occur? occurs during prophase I
In mitosis, how many identical diploid cells are produced? two
In meiosis, how many nonidentical haploid cells are produced? four
what are the types of cells produced in mitosis? body cells
what are types of cells produced in meiosis? reproductive cells
what is the purpose of mitosis? for growth and repair body tissues
what is the purpose of meiosis? for production of gametes for sexual reproduction
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