Period 2 - Classical Civs - 600 B.C.E-600 C.E

Flashcards by , created about 3 years ago

Flashcards on Period 2 - Classical Civs - 600 B.C.E-600 C.E, created by C H on 10/04/2016.

Created by C H about 3 years ago
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Question Answer
List the four "Persian" empires in order. Achaemenids, Seleucids, Pathians, Sasanids
Name 3 of Achaemenid rulers Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, Xerxes
What was a satrap? Governers of provinces (satrapies) in the Persian Empire
Darius moved the capital of the Persian Empire from Pasargadae to _____________. Perseopolis d58ebdca-4961-4526-aa25-105cc3724f02.jpg (image/jpg)
What were the ways that the Achaemenids held their empire together as it became very large? 1) Allowed a certain amount of tolerance for local customs and religions 2) Built roads for military and economic expansion 3) Employed "Eyes and Ears of the King" to keep an eye on satraps 4) Created a bureaucracy at Perseopolis that kept careful records of the empire.
What two ways were used to keep the satraps from declaring independence from Persia? 1) Eyes and Ears of the King 2) Local military and tax collectors who would provide a sort of check/balance thing to keep satraps from having all the power.
What was the name of the famous Persian road? The Royal Road
What were the qanat? Large, underground irrigation canals used for farming.
How prevalent was iron during the Persian Empires? Iron became a common metal during the Achaemenid empire and continued on after that.
Compared to Darius, how did Xerxes treat conquered people? Darius was much more tolerant while Xerxes demanded conquered people adopt his own values.
What were the Persian Wars? An ongoing 150 year series of battles between Greeks and Persians.
How were the Seleucids different than the Achaemenids? The Seleucids were Greeks, part of Alexander the Great's empire after he died.
How were the Parthians different than the Achaemenids? Parthians were originally from the steppes of Central Asia and were originally more nomadic.
What military advantages did the Parthians have over other groups? 1) Larger horses (due to alfalfa) 2) metal armor (protected from arrows)
How did the Parthian government differ than Achaemenid government? Parthian government was more tribal/clan based than the highly centralized Achaemenid gov't.
Of the three other "Persian" empires that followed the Achaemenids, which was the MOST Persian and why? Sasanids, because they were actually from Persia instead of outsiders.
How did the Sasanids use religion to show their "Persian-ness?" They implemented Zoroastrianism as the official state religion.
Shapur I was the Persian king during which Persian empire? Sasanid
How did the Sasanids compare to the Achaemenids in terms of territorial expansion? Achaemenids expanded the Persian empire greatly but Sasanids wasn't able to do so b/c of Roman influence on the west.
Who was the creator god in Zoroastianisim? Ahura Mazda
Why do historians consider Zoroastrianism a forerunner to Judaism, Christianity and Islam? Because like J,C, and I, it emphasized a dualistic worldview, and an idea of afterlife similar to the heaven/hell idea.
Who was the first Persian emperor to associate clearly with Ahura Mazda? Darius
The Gathas were most similar to which: Vedas, Old Testament, Koran Vedas - both were religious hymns/stories transmitted orally
Which technology diffused to the Persians from the Lydians? Standardized coins
What were changes to the bureaucrat's social status during the Pesian classical age? Bureaucrats become much more valued as the empire relied on them more. As a result, they challenged even the warrior class for importance in society.
How did Persian routes to slavery differ from Mesopotamian routes to slavery? Mesop were 1) prisoners of war 2) convicted criminals or 3) self-sold into slavery for debt. Persians only used 1 and 3.
List the two most famous classical Indian empires in order Mauryan and Gupta
What religious system changed Ashoka Maurya's view of himself? Buddhism
Darius : Perseopolis :: Ashoka : _____________ Pataliputra
List three similarities between Classical Persian, Chinese, and Indian empires: 1) Roads 2) Extended Trade 3) Coinage 4) Used religion/philosophy as a unifying element 5) Centralized Bureaucracy
How did the Kushan Empire affect trade? It made it flourish b/c it kept a larger area of silk roads safe.
How did the Guptas differ than Ashoka Mauryan in terms of running the empire? Guptas allowed for more local autonomy whearas Ashoka was interested in supervising everything going on in the empire.
Why was the Gupta empire considered a golden age? Because of the political stability it brought to India, allowing intellectual pursuits (science, math) to be pursued.
List two achievements of Gupta scientists/mathematicians: 1) Calculate of pi to 5 digits 2) Zero 3) plastic surgery 4) idea that earth rotates on an axis 5) figuring out a precise solar year
Which group of people brought down the Gupta empire? The White Huns
Long distance trade went in two directions from India. Where? 1) Up through Bactria toward Medit. 2) Along silk roads to China
Sea trade in Indian Ocean improved during Classic Period because: Sailors recognized and used the monsoon pattern of winds to their advantage.
How did gender roles change/stay the same during Classical Indian period? Increasingly patriarchal. Evidence from two Indian epics and child marriage.
How did the caste system change/stay the same during Classical India period? 1) Increasing number of jati subcastes 2) top castes began to lose their importance
How did increased economic prosperity affect the social order? Lower castes began to hold more economic power sometimes
The belief that all living and non-living things have a soul is called Jainism
How did Jainism indirectly challenge the caste system? Many Jainists rejected/questioned the importance of castes that involved killing.
What is ahimsa? The principle of non-violence toward all living things.
Why was Jainism attractive to some groups? Because it challenged the idea that the higher castes were more important and lesser castes not important.
What are the Four Noble Truths? 1) All life involves suffering 2) Desire is the cause of suffering 3) Elimination of desire ends suffering 4)The 8-fold path ends desire
What is dharma? Dharma is right doctrine
What were some of the roles that Buddhist monasteries played? Educational centers, banks and provided land (jobs) to their communities.
How does Mahayana Buddhist differ from Theravada Buddhism? Mahayana allows for more ways to earn good karma while Theravada is stricter.
What are boddhisatvas? Enlightened teachers who have chosen to forgo nirvana to help others on the path.
From 300 B.C.E. to 100 C.E. three important developments took place in buddhist dharma. What were they? 1) The idea of boddhisatvas 2) Accepting of money as a good work 3) Buddha became a god
According to the Bhagavad Gita, what two ways can Hindus earn good karma? 1) Fulfilling your indiviudal caste duties 2) Worshipping Krishna
Why did Hinduism eventually become more popular than Buddhism in India? 1) Buddhists began to withdraw from public interaction 2) Gupta rulers favored/supported Hinduism (similar to how Ashoka had favored Buddhism)