biol topic 1

Alesha Oconnor
Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago

Flashcards on biol topic 1, created by Alesha Oconnor on 05/01/2013.

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Alesha Oconnor
Created by Alesha Oconnor almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Explain what is enviromental variation Characteristics of animal and plant species can be affected by factors such as climate, diet, accidents, culture and lifestyle.
Explain how DNA reasearch support darwins theory Evolution is cause by gradual changes in dna. So organisms that have diverged more recetly have similar dna, e.g us and chimps.
Explain how the emerge of resistance organisms support darwins theory warfin was used to kill rats, but a certain gene gives rats resistance to warfin. these are more likely to survive and breed, now having rat populations that are resistant to warfarin.
Explain the role of the scientific comunity in the use of scientific journals scientists publish their work, scientists can then repeat the experiment and get the same results, the scientific communtiy can be pretty confiident and reliable
Explain the role of the scientific community in the use of the peer review process before scientists can publish there work it must undergo peer review, where scientists read and review the work to check its valid + to the highest possible standard
What is Classification The process of sorting organisms into groups based on their characteristics
Explain the role of the scientific community in the use of the scientific conferences scientists conferences are meeting that scientists attend to present and discuss their work
What is an allele Different forms of the same gene
Name the 5 kingdoms of organsms Animalia (all multicelluar animals) Plantae (all gree plants) Fungi (moulds, mushrooms, yeast) Protoctista ( blue-green algae) Prokaryotae (bacteria)
what is a dominant allele Version of a gene that will always have an effect
Name the 6 kingdoms that are subdivided into smaller groups of organisms that have common features Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
what is a recessive allele Version of a gene that will only have and effect if the other allele is also recessive
Characteristics of Animalia Multicellar, heterotrophic feeders so no chlorophyll + no cell walls
Characteristics of Plantae Multicelluar, autotrophic feeders using chlorophyll + have cell walls
Characteristics of Fungi Multicelluar, cell walls, saprophytic feeders + no chlorophyll
Characteristics of Protoctista unicellular, no nucleus
Characteristics of Prokaryota unicellular, no nucleus
Explain why scientists do not classify viruses in any 5 kingdoms and regard them as nonvliving As a virus particle enters a living cell, it changes the way it works and makes copies of the virus, however it does not show any other life processes, such as growth and feeding like other organisms.
describe the structure of a nucleus The cell's nucleus contains chromosomes made from long DNA molecules
what is a gene A gene is a short section of DNA.
how many chromosones are found in a average human cell? 23
Explain saprophytic feeding Getting food by digesting the tissues of other organisms outside the body and absorbing the digested food
what is homozygous Offspring with two alleles the same are homozygous
Explain Autotrophic feeding Makes food from small molecules using an energy source, such as photosynthesis
Explain Heterotrohpic feeding Getting food by eating and digesting other organisms tissues
what is heterozygous If the alleles are different then it is heterozygous
Describe the main characteristics of the phylum chordata Animals with a supporting rod running the lenght of a body e.g backbone in vertebrates
what is heterozygous If the alleles are different then it is heterozygous
Oxygen absorption methods to classify vertebrates how the animal takes in oxygen - lungs, gills or through the skin
Thermoregulation to classify vertebrates thermoregulation - maintains own temperature (homeotherms) or temperature varies with surroundings (poikilotherms)
Reproduction to classify vertebrates reproduction - internal or external fertilisation, lay eggs (oviparous) or give birth to live young (viviparous).
phenotype What the organism looks like, eg red flower is the phenotype.
Why are vertebrates difficult to classify Assigning vertebrates to different groups can be difficult as some fall into many categories: for example, sharks are fish but give birth to live young and use internal fertilisation.
why would species of an organisms reproductive fertile offspring may have limtatins some organisms do not always reproduce asexually and some hybrids are fertile
genotype The alleles in the organism
describe the symptoms of sickle cell disease the red blood cells of suffers can stick together which can block blood vessels. suffers can become very tired and quickly out of breath.
describe the symptons of cystic fibrosis abnormally thick mucus + sticky mucus in there lungs, airways, gut+ pancreas. symptoms include breathing difficulties, malutritioin and fertility problems.
Explain adaptation Over many generations, these adaptations have come about through variation. Variation involves small changes between organisms which may allow that organism to compete better for survival.
How can classification be complicated variation within a species e.g there are a wide rang of dogs that look different but are still the same speices
Explain adaptation Over many generations, these adaptations have come about through variation. Variation involves small changes between organisms which may allow that organism to compete better for survival.
Two causes of variation Variation can have environmental or genetic causes.
Explain darwins theory Darwin's theory of evolution explains how species of living things have changed over geological time. The theory is supported by evidence from fossils and by the rapid changes that can be seen to occur in organisms.
Four adaptations of a polar bear a white appearance, as camouflage from prey on the snow and ice thick layers of fat and fur, for insulation against the cold a small surface area to volume ratio, to minimise heat loss a greasy coat, which sheds water after swimming.
Adaptations of living in deep sea hydrothermal vents a pompeii using a thick layer of bacteria to protect it from heat hiding inside a papery tube to protect it from predators.
Explain variation Differences within in species
Explain darwins theory of evolution mentioning variation, over production, struggle for existence, advantages of the inherited characteristics + gradual change Individuals are not always the same due to their genes. So variation within populations of organisms. Most organisms give birth to live young that cant survive to adulthood. Characteristics that make them better adapted to the enviroment have a better chance of survival +are most likely to breed sucesfully. So the genes that are useful for the characteristics will be more likely to be passed on. Over time there will be a higher proportionn with beneficial characteristics.
Explain continuous variation is when the individuals in a population vary within in a range, no distinct catogories. e,g humans can be any height within a range, not just tall or short.
Example of continuos variation in a Animal, mmcroorganisms and plants animals- e.g humans can be any mass within a range. microorganisms- e.g lenght of e-coli within a range plants- a tree can have any number of leaves with in a range
Explain discontinuos variation is when there are two or more distinc catogories. each idividual falls into only one of these catogories, no intermediates.
Example of discontinuos variation in a animal, microorganisms and plants is when there are two or more distinc catogories. each idividual falls into only one of these catogories, no intermediates.
Explain how genes cause genetic variation organisms genes inherited from their parents genes.The combining of genes from two parents cause genetic variation, no two species are genetically identical(execpt identical twins) some characteristics are only determind by genes(e.g violet colour flower/eye colour/inherited disorders)
3 exapmles of enviromental variation diet, exercise, religion + laungage