Formation of Ethers

Danielle Thibeadeaux
Flashcards by Danielle Thibeadeaux, updated more than 1 year ago
Danielle Thibeadeaux
Created by Danielle Thibeadeaux over 7 years ago
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Hydroxyl groups of sugars can be converted to ethers using a _____ and an _____ ________ by a version of the ________ ether _______. Hydroxyl groups of sugars can be converted to ethers using a base and an alkyl halide by a version of the Williamson ether synthesis.
_______ ethers are commonly used to protect ______ groups in sugars. Benzyl(C6H5CH2) ethers are commonly used to protect hydroxyl groups in sugars.
Benzyl halides are _______ introduced because they are highly ________ in ______ reactions. Benzyl halides are easily introduced because they are highly reactive in SN2 reactions.
______ _______ or ________ _______ is typically used as the base in an aprotic solvent such as DMF or DMSO. Sodium hydride or potassium hydride is typically used as the base in an aprotic solvent such as DMF or DMSO.
The benzyl group can later be easily removed by _________ using a _________ catalyst. The benzyl group can later be easily removed by hydrogenolysis using a palladium catalyst.
The hydroxyl groups of ___________ are more ________ than those of ordinary alcohols due to the many _____________ atoms in the sugar The hydroxyl groups of monosaccharides are more acidic than those of ordinary alcohols due to the many electronegative atoms in the sugar.
In aqueous _____ the hydroxyl groups are all converted to ________ ions and each reacts with dimethyl sulfate in an ____ reaction to yield a _______ ether. This process is called ____________ In aqueous NAOH the hydroxyl groups are all converted to alkoxide ions and each reacts with dimethyl sulfate in an SN2 reaction to yield a methyl ether. This process is called exhaustive methylation.
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