Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago

Flashcards on HIS, created by reynoldslaura on 05/04/2013.

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Created by reynoldslaura almost 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Define a cohort. A group of persons born during the same time who experience particular social changes within a given culture in the same sequence and at the same age e.g. the baby boom after WWII
Define transition. Change in roles and statuses that represent a distinct departure from prior roles and statuses e.g. marriage, adolescence and retirement
Define life event. A significant occurrence involving a relatively abrupt change that may produce serious and longlasting effects e.g. sexual abuse, rape, death of a close relative etc
What is a turning point? Life event or transition that produces a lasting shift in the life course trajectory. Often leads to a transformation in self or identity
Define trajectory. A long-term pattern of stability and change, which usually involves multiple transitions
What role does social comparison have in the challenge of coping with illness? ( remember social comparison is perceiving oneself to be inferior to those around you) Creates a sense of unfairness, envy and breakdown of social cohesion
Define lay epidemiology. health risks are understood and interpreted by making sense of problems using social, familial and personal sources of knowledge (e.g. my friend had a lump too and it was cancer so mine must be)
Define popular epidemiology. Local communities involved in health concern, linking social an environmental factors
What is an expert patient? A patient who is actively involved in self management of their own treatment e.g. diabetics and insulin or anti-coagulant monitoring devices
What is meant by the term 'nuclear family'? a married couple and their unmarried children living together.
What is the 'demoralisation thesis'? A loss in the traditional structure of a nuclear family leads to moral decline and has harmful implications for health.
What is the 'democratisation thesis'? Social change has produced relationships that are more satisfying. People are free from family constraints, making it possible to shape own relationships
Define social network Social networks characterize the web of social relations around an individual, including, most importantly, who the contacts are and the nature of the ties that connect them (e.g., close/distant, friend/relative).
What are some of the social aspects of depression? Wealth, mundane jobs, social networks
Give two examples of lay perspectives of depression. Skepticism about treatment, preference for informal/non medical support and described as individual/personal
Give two examples of lay causes of depression. changes in life circumstances e.g. loss of loved ones Loneliness/isolation Traumatic experiences e.g. neglect during childhood etc
What do lay descriptions of a disease usually include? Mostly the social elements to the disease- explained in terms of social context rather than scientific or medical language. Focused on how it affects social world and relationships
Give two reasons why we should study lay perspectives as healthcare professionals ? Help us to see why a patient is compliant or non compliant with medical advice The idea of a 'symptom iceberg' - people treat themselves in the community with no H.P input
Give two lay perspectives of recovery. 1. Social support (NOT network - this is different) 2. Talking about and acknowledging illness 3. Individual or internal change - leads to recovery
What is the main thing that influences lay perspectives on health? ETHNICITY AND CULTURE - therefore we need culturally appropriate trained professional help where possible.
List the 5 main reasons why people decide to seek help from a healthcare professional according to Zola 1973 'decisions to consult' . 1. Interpersonal crisis 2. Interference with social/personal relations 3. Interference with usual role 4. Temporalising (waiting it out) 5. Pressure from others to get help
What are the three aspects to Herzlich's model of health belief (1973)? Having- the potential to resist illness Doing- the realisation of a persons reserve of strength Being- the absence of illness
Define habituation. An activity may become so taken for granted that it is not reflected upon. e.g. needle sharing amoungst opiate injectors in Glasgow - 'normal behaviour and seen as descriminatory- cant do it unless you belong'
What does 'topography of risk' mean? Hierachy of risk e.g. suggesting condom use in male prostitutes has a more imminent threat than illness and death through HIV/AIDS
What is the social norms approach? Assumes that behaviour is influenced by perceived norms in terms of: Descriptive norms – beliefs about what other people do Injunctive norms – beliefs about what other people think we should do
Give three implications for risk and health behaviours for health professionals. 1. Don't assume patients are ignorant- may chose to carry out behaviour despite risk associated (complex factors) 2. recognise pleasures associated with risk taking 3. remember there are wider influences beyond your control in risk
Give examples of three factors that can affect our perception of risk? 1.Political/power issues- firearms in USA 2.Knowledge or recognition of risk- tobacco industry in elizabethan era 3. Culture and social groups- risk associated with steroid use 4. Pleasure e.g. unprotected sex
Give an example of a social structural factor that is associated with risky activities. Smoking in working class women or teenage pregnancies
What are the two different types of risk? Internal- things the individual can be blamed for e.g. smoking External- risks from the environment e.g. infectious diseases. Need more science to be able to assess the risk
Define risk. Something is not risky unless we know that the practice or activity could be dangerous . What is perceived as 'dangerous' is not universal
Give an example of another factor that may come into play when assessing risk? Social relations e.g. needle sharing demonstrates belonging and sex without a condom demonstrates trust Or identity e.g. more dangerous the activity, more masculine it is
List two explanations for gender variability in mortality Biological, risk behaviours, occupational and work factors, Social roles and relationships, power and resources in the home, social structural differences in society and psycho-social
What is meant by 'hegemonic masculinities' This reflects culturally valued and accepted notions of ‘real’ manhood. A man is characterised by toughness, unemotionality, physical competence, competitiveness and aggression
Give an example of the socioeconomic explanations of health inequality based on ethnicity Minority ethnic groups found to be amongst most socially disadvantaged e.g. pakistani families in the same occupation live on half the average household income of white families
What does racialisation of disadvantage mean? The predicament of minorities (e.g. poor housing, unemployment etc) is seen as a result of innate features of the groups themselves - something located in their biology/culture
Why may black and other minority populations have a low use of services? Low perceived quality of GP consultations, low awareness of social services and previous experiences of prejudice and institutional racism
What are the possible reasons for high prevalence of STI’s (inc HIV)for Black groups? Migration, socio-economic status; disadvantage & discrimination; sexual attitudes, behaviour and health services access
Define sex. Sex is the classification of male or female based on reproductive organs and functions assigned by chromosomal content
Define gender A person’s self-representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on their gender presentation. It is rooted in biology and shaped by environment and experience
When discussing someones specific, cultural needs what term do we use? Ethnicity
Give an example of a biological explanation of health inequality based on ethnicity Sickle cell anaemia in african groups and arab groups, thalassaemia in south asia, east asia, mediterainan and middle eastern groups
What doe the inequality act (2010) fail to protect discrimination against? Social class
Why is the prevalence of CHD higher in south asian groups? Because of socioeconomics
Cancers appear to have a relatively low prevalence in migrant groups. What could be the reasons for this? Poor data recording, migration, low service use
There is a higher mortality of diabetes amongst south Asian and Caribbean populations -higher rates of end stage diseases. What are the reasons for this? High undiagnosed levels of diabetes in the populations
What could be the reasoning behind high rates of psychosis in Caribbean men and high suicide rates for young asian women? Institutional racism- caribbean men are more likely to be sectioned and lack of population based evidence
What was the overall findings from the Marmott review (2010)? Giving every child the best start in lifeto enable a fair society where everyone can maximize their capabilities and have control over their lives to prevent against ill health
Define social class A segment of the population distinguished from others by similarities in labour market, position and property relations
What were the three explanations given for health inequalities by the Black Report in 1980? 1. Cultural explanations 2. Selection (direct and indirect) 3. Material (low income and resources)
What approach was favoured by the Black Report (1980)? The materialistic approach. The idea that poor health and early death are related to socio-economic differences in society as a whole
What can GP's do to address the 'causes of the causes'? Social prescribing- prescribing in context with how people live e.g. exercising on prescription etc. Can also act as advocates for policies that address health inequalities
Give three examples of things that have been 'healthitized'. Sleep, diet and stress
What is a 'lay perspective'? A form of knowledge process used to interpret someones everyday experience of an illness
Describe biomedicalisation the intensification of medicalisation due to technoscientific changes.
What is social comparison? Perceiving oneself to be inferior to those around you. It is a psychosocial risk factor associated with ill health
What component of health is not recognised by international health experts? Hereditary health
When is the biomedical approach good at explaining disease and why? When someone has an infectious disease because it has a specific cause
When is the social sciences approach considered better than the biomedical approach? For mental illness and palliative care
Give two examples of things that have been 'medicalised' Childbirth, menstruation and obesity
Define sickness. The social role of those who are defined as sick or ill
What would social scientists define health as? A condition to which we attach socially devised meanings
What is the WHO definition of health (1984)? "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”
Name 4 social determinants of health Human biology, lifestyle, environment and healthcare services