Making and Oxidising Alcohol

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Flash cards on oxidation of alcohols and their properties.

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Question Answer
What are the two ways of making alcohol? 1. Hydration of ethane 2. Fermentation
What's the equation for hydration of ethane? H2C=CH2(g) + H2O(g) -----> CH3CH2OH(l) (conditions 300deg, 60atm)
What's the equation for fermentation of glucose? C6H12O6(aq) -------> 2CH3CH2OH(aq) + 2CO2(g) (conditions, yeast, 37 deg)
Name 2 uses of ethanol, and 1 of methanol? 1. Ethanol in alcoholic drinks 2. Ethanol as fuel 3. Ethanol in methylated spirits 4. Methanol for feedstock 5. Methanol used as clean burning fuel.
Define volatility? The ease that a liquid turns into a gas.
How do you define a primary alcohol? It has 0 or 1 alkyl groups.
How do you define a secondary alcohol? It has 2 alkyl groups.
How do you define a tertiary alcohol? It has 3 alkyl groups.
If you oxidise a primary alcohol, what does it form? An aldehyde.
If you then oxidise the primary alcohol again, what does it form? A carboxylic acid.
What forms if you oxidise a secondary alcohol? Ketones only.
What forms when you oxidise a tertiary alcohol? Tertiary alcohols won't be oxidised.
What is a suitable oxidising agent for all alcohols? A mixture of K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) and H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)
During the reaction, acidified potassium dichromate changes colour from what? to what? Orange to green.
The formula and suffix of an aldehyde? Formula = -CHO (C=O) Suffix = -al
Formula and suffix of a ketone? Formula = C-C=O-C Suffix = -one
Formula and suffix of carboxylic acid? Formula = -C=OOH Suffix = -oic acid
What does propan-1-ol + [O] distilled with K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 form? Propanal + H20, because primary alcohol oxidised once to aldehyde.
Define Reflux? Reflux is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry.
What does propan-1-ol + 2[O] refluxed with K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 form? Propanoic acid+ H2O, because refluxed so forms carboxylic acid. Been oxidised more than once.
In a plentiful supply of oxygen, what is the equation of complete combustion of ethanol? C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) ----> 2CO2(g) + 3H20(l)
What does butan-2-ol + [O] heated with K2Cr2O7/H2SO4 present form? Butanone + H2O, because a secondary alcohol oxidised is a ketone.
Define esterification? Esterification is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce and ester and water.
What acid is often used as the catalyst? concentrated H2SO4.
Propanoic acid + Methanol form what? Methyl Propanoate + H2O, because OH bond in alcohol is broken off and H from OH of alcohol group, they form water and carboxylic acid and alcohol join together.
Name 2 uses of esters? 1. Adhesives 2. Solvents 3. Food flavouring 4. Perfume
Define dehydration? Dehydration is where water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated one.
What is the equation for the dehydration of ethanol? Ethanol ( with heat and concentrated H2SO4) forms ethene + H2O.
When an alcohol is dehydrated, what are the atoms lost? An OH group from one carbon atom and a H atom from the adjacent carbon atom.
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