PY4 Controversy Definitions

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Flashcards by rhunter5967, updated more than 1 year ago
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Flashcards on PY4 Controversy Definitions, created by rhunter5967 on 04/25/2014.

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Genetic Influence what is inherited from our parents in the short term, and our evolutionary ancestors in the long term. They should be adaptive, that is, be useful to aid reproduction and survival in some way, which is why they are continually passed down. These influences don’t just include things present at birth, but to any ability determined by genes, even those that lie dormant and appear later through maturation. For example, the MAOA gene for aggression.
Environmental Influence influences that are external to the human body. Empiricists support environmental factors and see a person born as ‘Tabula Rasa’, to be shaped by their environment, which can include people or opportunities like education and location as well as pre-natal factors. Some examples of these influences could be a mother’s alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and SLT.
Free Will all behaviour results from a person's own active volition (will), that is, each person has the freedom to control what he or she thinks or does. This means that we are ‘self-determining’ and free from the causal influences. They are not acting in response to any external or internal (biological) pressures. For example deciding to kill another person. It is important to realise that free will does not mean randomness.
Determinism the position that all human thought and behaviour is determined by forces which are outside of a person's individual control, as opposed to an individual's will to do something. Their cause could be from external factors (such as how we are treated) – this is known as ‘environmental determinism’ or internally (such as our genes or our physical capability) – this is known as ‘biological determinism’. This means that behaviour should be predictable based on what factors could influence them. For example, in court one could argue that they were pre-determined to carry out their actions, and therefore they cannot be held responsible.
Gender Bias This is the differential treatment or representation of men and women based on stereotypes rather than real differences. This bias can exist in the way that research is carried out (biased sampling etc) or in theories that are biased in favour of a particular gender. It can be either over emphasising the differences between genders or over emphasising the similarities between genders. Most often in Psychology the bias is against females, favouring males. It includes varieties of gender bias such as theoretical, reporting, researcher and methodological bias.
Science Science is a branch of knowledge conducted on objective principles involving the systematic and logical observation of, and experiment with phenomena. Science is concerned with what we know to be true as opposed to what we simply believe to be true. This is all in order to predict and control the world. A science can also be regarded as a science is it uses the scientific method and can be split into the reductionist hard sciences (e.g physics) and the more holistic soft sciences (psychology).
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