External Pressures

Flashcards by emilyralphs, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by emilyralphs over 7 years ago


Flash cards addressing the external pressures on the Travel and Tourism Sector

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(Legislation) Development of Tourism Act 1969 Established a British Tourist Authority and tourist boards for Eng, Ire, Scot and Wales. The BTA and English Tourism Council have merged to form 'Visit Britain'. The Act's aim was to co-ordinate all the organisations in the tourism industry and give it one voice
(Legislation 2/3) Transport Acts 1980 and 1985 The 1980 Act ended licensing regulations affecting express coach routes and 30+ mile tours. It led to competition between National Bus and private companies. The 1985 Act made wholesale de-regulation meaning private companies could operate any route
(Legislation 3/3) Package Travel, Package Holidays and Package Tours Regulations 1992 UK tour operators offering pack holidays are under the Package Travel Regulations (give tour operators responsibilities to customers and what customers can do if they're are breached). If breached, the tour operator is cased against
Climate Can have bad impact on destinations and their tourist industry. E.g. Grenada hurricane 2003, SE Asia tsunami 2004 (across 12 countries). Results in poor infrastructure and little tourists. Hot climate increases tourism (increase in domestic and decrease in outbound)
Terrorist Attacks NYC World Trade Centre (11 Sep 2001) had impact on UK and worldwide tourism from fear. Bombing in Bali resort 2002, 200+ dead, tourism picked up 2 yrs later. Bombings in Istanbul, Kenya and Madrid.
Economic Climate A country with a strong economy can invest in tourism (new infrastructure, public sector support and promotional campaigns e.g. Visit Britain). However, more expensive for tourists
Currency Fluctuation UK's appeal increases when the sterling is weak as foreigners get more pounds for their money. Hotel and transport and fuel fees will move in line with currency movements.
(Positive impact on host environment) Economic Tourists bring income when spending, government gains from increased revenue as it receives taxes from businesses earning revenue from tourism and in VAT from goods/services. Tourism creates jobs and improved infrastructure
(Negative impact on host environment) Economic Leakage which is when economic benefits are lost due to high import of goods/services used in tourism (e.g. if hotel food and drink is imported) and economic distortion occurs when one region of a country is highly for tourism while others have no development
(Positive impact on host environment) Environmental Conservation and preservation of historic sites, national parks give tourists environmental awareness and the regeneration of the environment
(Negative impact on host environment) Environmental Traffic congestion, noise and pollution , influx of tourists pressuring scarce resorts
(Positive impact on host environment) Social Community facilities and services to cater for tourists benefit locals (e.g. sport facilities). The education/training of locals to enable them to have jobs in tourism
(Negative impact on host environment) Social Conflict between tourists and host community and when tourism is regionalised in a country people may leave homes to take jobs in tourism (displacement)
(Positive impact on host environment) Cultural Reinforcement of cultural identity and traditional customs/crafts can be sustained by tourist interest and purchase of local goods
(Negative impact on host environment) Cultural Changes in cultural tradition when traditional events/dances are degraded for tourist entertainment. Destinations can lose cultural identity as tourists demand products/services for them (e.g. English breakfast)
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