Mass Media

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Flashcards by emily.jobber.x, updated more than 1 year ago
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Flashcards on Mass Media , created by emily.jobber.x on 05/07/2014.

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Horizontal Intergration Also known as: Cross media ownership. Refers to the fact that the bigger media companies often own a diverse range of media. E.g. Newscorp
Vertical Intergration Media companies owning all stages of production, distribution and consumption of a product E.g. Time Warner
Diversification The practice of spreading risk by moving into new, unrelated areas of business. Losses in one area may be compensated in another E.g. Virgin
Global Conglomeration Transnational corporations with a presence in many countries, operating in a global market. E.g. News corp Related: Globalisation
Synergy Different entities/businesses corporate together for an mutually advantageous result, for example a Disney's Brave was not only a film, but also had a computer game, album, toy figurines also. Often the media company producing the product owns the other smaller companies related to this process
Technological convergence Refers to the trend of putting several previously separate media forms combining together as a result of digital technology.
Public service broadcasting media outlets controlled by the state
Agenda Setting Controlling which issues comes to the public's attention and which are avoided. GUMG argue we are given a fairly limited view, distracts attention away from the mass inequalities of the capitalist system. As a result of this cultural hegemony occurs
Pluralism A theory that society is made up of many different groups, all having more or less equal power.
Media Conglomerate A company that owns various types of media.
Cultural Pessimists Commentators who are pessimistic about the spread and influence of new media technologies. The new media is still in the hands of the concentrated powerful corporations. Commercialization and reinforcing elite power also occur.
Compression The way in which digital technologies can send many signals through the same cable.
Interactivity Digital technologies that are responsive in real time to user output.
Participatory culture Jenkins (2008) Result of interactivity and convergence. Media producers and consumers no longer occupy separate roles, now they are participants that interact with each other according to a new constantly evolving set of rules.
Collective intelligence Jenkins (2008) Results from interactivity The way in which users of new media combine skills, resources and knowledge. The internet is the main means for this.
Neophiliacs Commentators who are optimistic about the spread and influence of new media technologies. They see it as offering consumers more choice and the chance to participate more interactively with the democratic system.
New Media Generally refers to the evolution of existing media delivery systems and the development of new digital communication.
Convergence The combination of different ways of presenting a variety of types of information (e.g. text, photographs, video, film etc) into a single delivery system.
Galtung and Ruge (1970) News Values TCR Cupfern T- threshold C – continuity R- reference to elite nations C – composition u – unambiguity p - personalisation f – frequency e- extordinariness r – reference to elite persons n – negativity
News Values assumptions about what makes an event newsworthy that guide journalists and editors when selecting items.
Narrativisation transforming real events into easily digestible stories with casual agents (heroes and villains) and a sense of closure
Neo-Pluralism The view that journalists are professional, objective pursuers of truth who face obstacles in living up to these principles in the modern world.
'Churnalism' The uncritical over-reliance by journalists on 'facts' produced by the government spin doctors and public-relations experts.
Citizen Journalists Members of the public who record news events, for example using mobile phones cameras.
Powerful Elite The wealthy minority who control economic and political power. Bagdikian (2004) suggests these people own the media companies, therefore they ensure news is politically conservative and their news outlets promote corporate values.
Marginalizing Making a group or event appear to be on the edge of society and not very important.
Moral Panic Media reactions to particular social groups or particular activities that are defined as threatening societal values and thus create anxiety amongst the general population. The moral concern is usually out of proportion to any real threat to society posed by the group or activity. Examples of moral panics; Hoodies, Binge Drinking, Refugees and asylum seekers.
Folk Devil A stereotype of deviance that suggests that the perpetrators of the so-called deviant activities are selfish and evil, and steps need to be taken to neutralise their actions so society can return to 'normality'.
Gatekeepers People within the media who have the power to let some news stories through and stop others, e.g. editors. They therefore decide what counts as news.
Content analysis A research method that analyses media content in both a quantitative and qualitative way.
Semiotics The sociological study of sings and symbols contained in languages and images such as advertisements. Related: content analysis.
Primary definers Powerful groups that have easier and more effective access to the media, e.g. the government, the rich and powerful.
Moral Entrepreneurs Politicans, religious leaders etc who react to sensationalist media reports and make statments condemming the group or activity and insist that someone be done about it (police, courts and government action that must be taken against them).
Ideology A set of ideas used to justify and legitimize inequality, esp class inequality. Predominantly Marxist concept.
Effects Approach Mass media and audience. An approach based on the hypodermic syringe model which believes that the media have direct effects on their audience.
Hypodermic Syringe Model Media=very powerful, the audience = very weak. The media can 'inject' their messages into the audience who accept them uncritically.
Active Audience Approaches Theories that stress that the effects of the media are limited because people are not easily influenced. People have considerable choice in the way they use and interpret the media. Two versions: Selective filter model and The uses and gratification model.
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