MAC Creating a Profile

lauurajayyne
Flashcards by lauurajayyne, updated more than 1 year ago
lauurajayyne
Created by lauurajayyne almost 7 years ago
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OCR A2 Options in Applied Psychology, Forensic

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Question Answer
offender profiling is an area of ___ to assist detection of offenders. basic premise is that info left by the ___ at the ___ scene, both ___ and ___, can lead to conclusions being draw about kind of person who committed the crime area of criminology, left by the offender, the crime scene, both forensic and behavioural
Holmes & Holmes - three major goals of profiling? 1. Social & psychological assessment, 2. Psychological evaluation of belongings, 3. Interviewing suggestions & strategies
Holmes & Holmes Social & psychological assessment information about race, age range, employment, religion, marital status, education, etc
Holmes & Holmes Psychological evaluation of belongings look for items the offender may possess the serve as reminder of the violent crime e.g. souvenirs, photos, etc
Holmes & Holmes Interviewing suggestions & strategies profile information about the most effective methods of interrogation and interviewing
top down uses ___ ___ information about similar crimes, applies ___ knowledge to crime scenes. profiler uses a "___ ___" and then looks for ___ details that support it uses previously known information, applies existing knowledge, "big picture", for smaller details
also known as ___ method as it draws logical conclusions based on application of general principle to a particular instance (___ fits ___) as deductive method, (evidence fits hypothesis)
mostly used by ___ crime investigators, approach sometimes refered to as ___ approach by FBI crime investigators, American approach
smaller details support their ___. the "big picture" is known as a ___ and is based on belief different types of crimes have similar ___ and always behave in similar ways support their conclusions, know as a typology, have similar characteristics
American approach established by FBI when created no. of typologies through ___ with ___convicted serial killers. they used 57 page document asking offenders to identify ___ leading up to crime e.g. __, __/__ __, etc through interviews, with 36 convicted, identify factors, e.g. early warning signs, encouraged/inhibited offences
FBI also collected detailed info about ___ and ___ states of criminals from members of ___ ___ ___ who are experienced in area of ___ crime & ___. about behaviours and mental states, Behavioural Science Unit, sexual crime & homicide
Profile Development - the 4 stages? 1. Data Assimilation, 2. Crime Classification, 3. Crime Reconstruction, 4. Profile Generation
Data Assimilation the collection of all information from as many sources as possible
Crime Classification putting the crime in a category according to the evidence
Crime Reconstruction create a hypothesis about behaviour of victims and the modus operendi of the criminal based on reconstruction of the crime
Profile Generation development of a profile which contains suggestions of the offender's appearance and characteristics
FBI Classification of Murderers Organised their crime is planned, victim often a stranger, leave few or no clues, intelligent and in skilled occupation, married or cohabiting, likely to follow media reports
FBI Classification of Murderers Disorganised offence unplanned, crime committed in haphazard manner, often leave clues, know victim, familiar with scene, unskilled occupation, socially inadequate, sexually imcompetent
Pinnizzotto Aim? to examine the effectiveness of profiling in identifying potential suspects in murder and sex offence cases
Pinnizzotto Participants? 5 groups: expert profilers, detectives w/ profiling experience, detectives w/o profiler experience, clinical psychologists, undergraduate students
Pinnizzotto Method? laboratory experiment, ppts asked to read information about 2 closed cases (murder & sex offence) and asked to build an offender profile for each. profiles then compared for accuracy
Pinnizzotto Results? profilers were more accurate than non-profilers on sex offence cases, but detectives without profiling experience more accurate on the murder case
Pinnizzotto Conclusions? the success of profiling is the result of both confidence and experience rather than the use of an exclusive technique. both training and practical experience vital in developing profiling expertise and that productive liaison between police and psychologists is the way forward
Bottom up approach based on profiler gathering info of each crime & forming ___ based on those details only. conclusions
profiler will process all info from crime scene to create "___" of what happened constantly ___ ___ details until it makes sense. also referred to as ___ method as conclusions formed using particular instances to form general principle (___ forms ___). approach used by ___ profilers "picture", constantly adding new details, inductive method, evidence forms hypothesis, used by British profilers
developed by ___ who runs the ___ for ___ ___. this approach looks at offender's behaviour ___ crime and attempts to formulate psychological theory to show why variations in criminal behaviour occur Canter, the Centre for Investigative Psychology, behaviour during crime
British approach makes no initial ___ about offender until ___ ___ carried out on the details of the crime, making it bottom up no initial assumption, until statistical analysis
Canter believes usefulness of method led to development of "___-___" theory. can help explain how offender's behaviour changes of series of offences, or establish whether 2 or more offences committed by same person "five-factor" theory
Geographic Profiling: considered by "five-factor" theory is "___ of ___ & ___" idea of Geographical Profiling based on no. of psychological theories (e.g. ___ ___ & ___ ___ theories) and research on ___ maps "significance of time & place", (e.g. rational choice & routine activities theories), on cognitive maps
Geographic Profiling ___ + ___ = ___ geographic location of crimes + mental maps used by offender = residential location
based on geographic profiling assumptions, Canter proposed ___ ___, a model of offender behaviour that helps reveal where offender lives and/or likely location of next crime, developed directly from ___ psychology Circle Theory, environmental psychology
The Circle Theory - proposes two models of behaviour: " ___" and "___" model "Marauder", "Commuter"
Marauder Model? assumes that an offender will go from their home base to commit their crimes
Commuter Model? assumes offender will travel a distance from their home base before committing the crime
Geographic profiling software programmes have been developed to assist criminal investigation such as Canter's ___, but geographical profiling only possible with ___ crimes where ___ of behaviours can be established & models based on ___ study of solved cases, difficult to apply in actual investigations, practically impossible to know if marauder or commuter Canter's DRAGNET, serial crimes, patterns of behaviour, retrospective study
Snook Aim? to examine distance between home to crime for serial murderers
Snook Method? collected records of 53 male serial murderer cases in Germany. all data obtained direct from police & court documents. home & geographic locations of victims plotted on map for each of 53. committed total of 247 murders over 70yrs, between 16-52yrs old, 90% under 40yrs old, IQ available for 29 of murderers
Snook Results? 63% serial sexual murders occurred within 10km of residence, 1st time location closest in 47% of cases, 35% of 2nd & 3rd murders closest to home. as age increased, home-to-crime distance decreased (negative correlation) average IQ 100.5, only 5 scored below 90. higher IQ, distance further
Snook Conclusions? in last 70yrs, bodies recovered near homes. IQ & age significant predictors, more IQ travel farther. certain factors appear to be related to distance from homes that murderers offend
Case Study approach to profiling involves a range of different ___ being used to collect information that will lead to the identification of the ___ of a potential offender different methods, of the characteristics
Canter invited by Metropolitan Police to draw up profile of the "___ ___". canter examined ___ of each crime and built up profile of attacker's ___, ___ and ___. the "railway rapist", examined details, attacker's personality, habits and traits.
using the ___ ___ approach, Canter identified two significant themes in the attacks: bottom up approach, 1) attacker seemed prepared to try and relate to the victim - suggests previous relationships that were abusive, 2) minimum amount of force used to dominate victim - suggests a weak, insecure individual
he also studied ___ of crimes over previous __ years, building up geographic profile, helped pinpoint where attacker lived as pattern suggested killer was a ___. locations of crimes, 4 years, killer was a marauder
features of profile Canter created matched very closely to the characteristics and traits of ___ ___. He was arrested at his mother's house where police obtained sufficient ___ evidence to sentence him to life imprisonment for ___ and ___. traits of John Duffy, sufficient forensic evidence, murder and rape
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